Main Article Content
This study investigated the impact of petroleum products on the physiochemical properties, heavy metals and THC of soil samples; and their possible phytoremediation. Perforated plastic buckets were filled with 10 kg of sieved virgin topsoil. A mixture of 2 L of spent engine oil, 2 L of kerosene, 2 L of petrol and 2 L of diesel was gradually poured into each bucket and allowed to drain through the soil, once a day for five days, and there after left to stabilize for a period of 21 days. Fluted pumpkin (Telforia Occidentalis) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, Cv. Kirikou) seeds were planted in buckets and closely monitored for 14 weeks. Soil analysis of the virgin topsoil, contaminated soil and remediated soil was done using standard methods. Tests results showed that the petroleum products significantly (p ≤0.05) altered the physicochemical properties, heavy metals and THC of the soil. From the results, the soil porosity decreased from 35% to 14%; specific gravity decreased from 2.34 to 1.35; the soil pH decreased from 7.05 to 5.34; the THC increased from 0,923 mg/kg to 964.35 mg/kg; copper level increased from 4.892 mg/kg to 7.729 mg/kg; the lead content increased from <0.0001 mg/kg to 1.128 mg/kg; while the iron content increased from 1251.2 mg/kg to 1587.9 mg/kg after the contamination. After the 14 weeks phytoremediation period, Telfairia occidentalis was able to degrade the THC in the soil from 964.35 mg/kg to 82.67 mg/kg; while Abelmoschus esculentus degraded the THC in the soil from 964.35 mg/kg to 104 mg/kg. Therefore, due to the harmful effects of the petroleum products on agricultural soils, laws banning their indiscriminate disposal of should be enforced.
Wang J, Jiq CR, Wong CK, Wong PK. Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons created in lubricating oils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 2000;120: 381-396.
Abha S, Singh CS. Hydrocarbon pollution: Effects on living organisms, remediation of contaminated environments, and effects of heavy metals co-contamination on bio-remediation. Introduction to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Processes and Bioremediation of Oil- Contaminated Sites. Dr. Laura Romero-Zerón (Ed.); 2012.
Peng S, Zhou Q, Cai Z, Zhang Z. Phyto-remediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009; 168:1490–1496.
Agbogidi OM, Ejemeta OR. An assessment of the effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties, germination and growth of Gambaya albida (L). Uniswa Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2005;8(2):148-155.
Agbogidi OM, Eshegbeyi OF. Performance of Dacryodes edulis (Don G, Lam HJ.) seeds and seedlings in a crude oil contaminated soil. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2006;22(3/4):1-14.
Liu X, Wang Z, Zhang X, Wang J, Xu G, Cao Z, Zhong C, Su P. Degradation of diesel-originated pollutants in wetlands by Scirpus triqueter and microorganisms. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2011;74:1967–1972.
Akpokodje OI, Uguru H, Esegbuyota D. Evaluation of phytoremediation potentials of different plants’ varieties in petroleum products polluted soil. Global Journal of Earth and Environmental Science. 2019; 4(3):41-46.
Huesemann M, Hausmann T, Fortman T, Thom R, Cullinan V. In situ phyto-remediation of PAH- and PCB-contaminated marine sediments with eelgrass (Zostera marina). Ecol. Eng. 2009;35:1395–1404.
Al-Baldawi IA., Abdullah SRS, Anuar N, Suja F, Mushrifah I. Phytodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in diesel-contaminated water using Scirpus grossus. Ecological Engineering. 2015;74: 463–473.
Schnoor JL. Technology evaluation report: Phytoremediation of soil and groundwater. GWRTAC Series; 2002.
Njoku KL, Akinola MO, Oboh BO. Phyto-remediation of crude oil contaminated soil: the effect of growth Glycine max on the physio-chemistry and crude oil content of soil. Nature and Science. 2009;7(10):79-87.
Ndimele PE. Evaluation of phyto-remediative properties of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and biostimulants in restoration of oil-polluted wetland in the Niger Delta. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 2008.
Kayode J, Oyedeji AA, Olowoyo O. Evaluation of the effects of pollution with spent lubricating oil on the physical and chemical properties of soil. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2009; 10(1):387-391.
Akpan GU, Usuah PE. Phytoremediation of diesel oil polluted soil by fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) in Uyo, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2014; 4(1):6-15.
Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC). Official methods of analysis. 15th Edn. Association Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D.C. 1990;805-845.
ASTMD 9071B - 7. Hexane extractable materials using soxhlet extraction method. American Society for Testing and Materials
APHA-American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater; 16th Edition, Washington DC; 1005.
Akpokodje OI, Uguru H, Esegbuyota D. Remediation of cassava effluent contaminated soil using organic soap solution: Case study of soil physical properties and plant growth performance. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2018;21(3):1-11.
Frick CM, Farrell RE, Germida JJ. Assessment of phytoremediation as an in situ technique for cleaning oil-conta-minated sites. PTAC Petroleum Techno-logy Alliance, Canada, Calgary; 1999.
Udonne JD, Onwuma HO. A study of effects of waste lubricating oil on teh physical/chemical properties of soil and the possible remedies. Journal of Petroleum and gas Engineering. 2014;5(1):9-14.
Andrade ML, Covelo EF, Vega FA, Marcet P. Effect of the prestige oil spill on salt marsh soils on the coast of Galicia (Northwestern Spain). Journal Environ. Qual. 2004;33:2103–2110.
Amadi A, Dickson A, Maate GO. Remediation of oil polluted soils: Effects of organic and inorganic nutrient supplements on the performance of maize. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 1993;66:59–76.
Ekundayo JA, Aisueni N, Benka-Coker MO. The effects of drilling fluids in some waste and burrow pits in western operational areas of Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited on the soil and water quality of the areas. Environmental Consultancy Service Group, Consultancy Services Unit, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1989.
Palmroth MR, Pichtel J, Puhakka JA. Phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel. Bioresour. Technol. 2002;84:221–228.
Atlas RM, Bartha R. Microbial ecology: Fundamentals and applications. 4th Edn. Benjamin Cummings, USA; 1998.