Identification of Industrial Hazards and Assessment of Safety Measures in the Chemical Industry, Nigeria Using Proportional Importance Index

Main Article Content

G. C. Afube
Ify L. Nwaogazie


Proper identification of hazards and creation of a safe working environment is a major challenge faced by management of many industries today. Hazard assessment is thus carried out in workplaces to identify dangerous events and conditions that may lead to accidents in the industries. This study, which was carried out in both a petrochemical and an oil refining companies of Nigeria, identified industrial hazards and assessed safety measures in the Chemical Industry (CHI) of Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The study was carried out amongst technical staff and management staff of the chemical industry whose day-to-day duty is such that they are exposed to one form of hazard or the other in the industry. The questionnaire was administered to 96 technical staff and management staff in the CHI out of which 84 (88%) were completed and returned. The study focused on types of hazards, hazards and risk awareness, implementation of control measures and effectiveness of safety hazards and risk management programmes in the chemical industry of Nigeria. Modified Proportional Importance Index (PII) and a four-point Likert scale were adopted in data analysis. Results revealed that loud noise (PII = 3.2; respondents = 92%), working at heights (with PII = 3.1; respondents = 89%) machines and equipment vibration (PII = 3.0; respondents = 87%), high voltage areas (PII = 2.9; respondents = 84%) and chemical spills (PII = 2.5; respondents = 55%) are the most high ranking hazards in the chemical industry. A high level of safety hazard awareness was found among workers in the industry (p < 0.05, 95%Cl.; PII = 3.1 - 3.5). The outcome of the intervention showed that Chemical Industry Number 1 (CHI-1) improved from 87.90% to 98.09%, Chemical Industry Number 2 (CHI-2) improved from 81.53% to 95.54% on worker’s knowledge on the identification and assessment of hazards and risk in the chemical industries. These hazards pose threats to the safety of workers and should be effectively controlled to reduce associated risks to as Low as Reasonably and Practically Achievable (ALARPA).

Chemical industry, hazards, risk, proportional importance index, implementation

Article Details

How to Cite
Afube, G. C., & L. Nwaogazie, I. (2019). Identification of Industrial Hazards and Assessment of Safety Measures in the Chemical Industry, Nigeria Using Proportional Importance Index. Archives of Current Research International, 19(1), 1-15.
Original Research Article


Animashaun O, Odeku KO. Industrial accident and safety hazards at the workplace: A spatio-physical workplace approach. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;5(20).

Chineke HIN, Adogu POU, Egenti NB, Ezemenahi BE, Egwuatu CC. Occupational hazards among workers in petroleum-allied industries in Nigeria: A case study. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2016;10(7):72-76.

Okafoagu NC, Mansur OO, Awosan KJ, Abdulmulmuni HB, Gana GJ, Ango JT, Raji I. Determinants of knowledge and safety practices of occupational hazards of textile dye workers in Sokoto, Nigeria: A descriptive study. Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2017;8(664):49-53.

Dickson DA. The recent trends and patterns in Nigeria Industrial Development, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa; 2010.

Adebayo R1. Zakat and Poverty alleviation: A lesson for the fiscal policy makers in Nigeria. Journal Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance. 2011;7 (4):26-41.

Okon EO, Osesie SW. Hazards of manufacturing sector and economic growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education. 2017;1(1):1-16.

Ezenwa AOA. Study of fatal injuries in Nigerian factories. Occup Med (Lond). 2001;51(8):485-489.

Bonine T. Six serious safety hazards to avoid in manufacturing jobs. Plant Engineering, 2014.

Kolanchu PS. An analysis of community awareness to chemical hazards in zamdela township–Sasolburg. Disaster Management Training and Education Center for Africa, University of the Free State; 2011.

Ebrahemzadih M, Maleki A, Darvishi E, Abadi MM, Dehestaniathar S. The analysis of process accidents due to risks in the petrochemical industries — The case study of radiation intensity determination proportional to distance from Tank level. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology. 2015;5:21-26.

Courtney TK, Gary SS, Derek PM, James WC, Mary Ann HJ. Occupational slip, trip, and fall related injuries–can the contribution of slipperiness be isolated? Ergonomics. 2001;44(13):1118-1137.

Eguvbe AO, Akpede N, Egbagba JE. Occupational health hazards in small and medium-scale manufacturing industries in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria. World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2017;5(1): 26-32.

Afube GC, Nwaogazie IL, Ugbebor JN. Assessment of hazards and safety practices in food and beverage industry in Nigeria. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports. 2019;7(2):1-18.

Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement; 1970.

Saunders M, Lewis P, Thornhill A. Research methods for business students 6th edition, Pearson Education Limited. 2012;288.

Nwaogazie IL. Probability and statistics for science and engineering practice, 3rd edition, De-Adriot Publishers, Enugu, South East Nigeria. 2011;180-184.

Black K. Business statistics: Contemporary decision making, 6th edition, John Wiley & Sons; 2010.

Bhattacherjee A. Social science research: Principles, Methods and Practices. Textbooks Collection. 2012;3.

Creswell JW. Educational research: Planning, conducting and EVALUATING quantitative and qualitative research, 4th Ed; 2012.

Addinsoft. XLSTAT statistical and data analysis solution. Boston, USA; 2019.

Pohlert T. Non-parametric trend tests and change-point detection; 2016.
Available: f

Gliem JA, Gliem RR. Calculating, interpreting and reporting cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for likert-type scales. Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; 2003.

Tawil NM, Hamzah N, Khoiry MA, Ani AIC, Basri H, Bina A. Capitalist factor that affecting the prices of double storey terrace houses in university town case study: Bandar BaruBangi. In Seminar Pendidikan Kejuruteraan and AlamBina (PeKA’11), Kongres Pengajaran and Pembelajaran UKM; 2011.

Muhwezi L, Acai J, Otim G. An assessment of the factors causing delays on building construction projects in Uganda. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 2014;3(1):13-23.

Ogundipe KE. Safety practices and workers performance on construction sites in Lagos State, Nigeria. Department of building technology, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State; 2017.

Schumacher RE. Standards for interpreting reliability coefficients. Washington: Joint Committee of the American Educational Research Association; 2015.

George D, Mallery P. SPSS for windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 4th Ed. 11.0 update; 2003.

ILO. Occupational safety and health in the oil and gas industry in selected Sub-Saharan African countries: Issues paper for discussion at the Sub-Saharan African Tripartite Workshop on Occupational Safety and Health in the Oil and Gas Industry; Maputo, Mozambique; 2017.

Takele T, Abera K. Prevalence and factors affecting work-related injury among workers engaged in small and medium-scale industries in Gondar Wereda, North Gondar zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2017;21(1):25-34.

Awodele O, Popoola TD, Ogbudu BS, Akinyede A, Herbert ABC. Occupational hazards and safety measures amongst the paint factory workers in Lagos, Nigeria. Safety and Health at Work. Elsevier. 2014; 5:106e111.

Reinhold K, Tint P. Hazard profile in manufacturing: Determination of risk levels towards enhancing the workplace safety, Journal of Environmental. Engineering and Landscape Management. 2009;17(2):69-80.

Sugarindra IM, Suryoputro MR, Novitasari AT. Hazard identification and risk assessment of health and safety approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2017;215:012-029.

Olayinka OS, Abdullahi SA. Industrial employees’exposure to noise in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. Industrial Health. 2009;47:123-133.

Odibo AA, Nwaogazie IL, Achalu EI, Ugbebor JN. Impact of intervention on occupational safety practices among sawmill workers in selected Sawmills in Delta State, PhD Thesis, COHSE, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. 2018;129-138.