Malaria Preventive Practices among Pregnant Women in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria

Main Article Content

T. Kasso
I. L. Oboro
O. Maduka
A. T. O. Awopeju
N. I. Paul
L. E. Yaguo-Ide
I. N. Chijioke-Nwauche
M. Ogoro
G. Otto
C. A. Nwauche


Background: Malaria is a serious public health problem in developing countries with Africa bearing most of its burden. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity. Use of effective malaria preventive measures during pregnancy reduces its burden and complications.

Aim: This was to determine malaria preventive practices used by pregnant women in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending public and private health facilities in Akwa Ibom state. An informed written consent was obtained from the participants. Stratified sampling method was used in selecting the health facilities and the study participants. Information was obtained with pretested questionnaires by trained personnel with the aid of Open Data Kit (ODK) on android phones. Data was managed with SPSS 22.0 and P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were 935 participants in the study. Their mean age was 28.52 ± 5.09 years with 879 (94.0%) being married. Most had secondary and tertiary degrees: 451(48.2%) and 440(47.1%). Majority of them were traders/business women and self-employed (58.2%) while 7% were unemployed. Malaria preventive practices were use of window net, bed net and insecticides accounting for 659(71%), 447(48.2%) and 207(22.3%) respectively. There were 612 (65.5%) participants that received malaria drugs for prevention with 452(73.9%) receiving Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP). Only 296 (31.7%) of them slept under bed nets the night before the interview.

Conclusion: Common preventive practices employed by pregnant women were IPTp with SP, window nets, ITNs and modified IRS. Majority of the women utilized widow nets, though not as effective as ITNs. Efforts should be intensified concerning awareness creation about the benefits of ITN use during pregnancy.

Malaria, pregnant women, preventive practices.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kasso, T., Oboro, I. L., Maduka, O., Awopeju, A. T. O., Paul, N. I., Yaguo-Ide, L. E., Chijioke-Nwauche, I. N., Ogoro, M., Otto, G., & Nwauche, C. A. (2020). Malaria Preventive Practices among Pregnant Women in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International, 19(3), 1-8.
Original Research Article


World Malaria Report 2018. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2018.
Available: en/

Malaria Policy Advisory Committee meeting. WHO HQ Session 4; 2012.

Nahlen BL. Rolling back malaria. N Eng J Med. 2000;343:651-652.

WHO. A strategic framework for malaria prevention and control during pregnancy in the African Region. World Health Organization, Geneva. AFR/MAL/04/01; 2004.

Schantz-Dunn J, Nour NM. Malaria and pregnancy: A global health perspective. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2009;2:186-192.

Tagbor H, Bruce J, Agbo M, Greenwood B, Chandramohan D. Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. PLoS One. 2010;5:e14425

Tagbor H, Cairns M, Bojang K, Coulibaly SO, Kayentao K, Williams J, et al. A non-inferiority, individually randomized trial of intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment in the control of malaria in pregnancy. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0132247.

Esu E, Berens-Riha N, Pritsch M, Nwachuku N, Loescher T, Meremikwu M. Intermittent screening and treatment with artemether-lumefantrine versus intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria in pregnancy: A facility-based, open-label, non-inferiority trial in Nigeria. Malar J. 2018;17(1):251.
DOI: 10.1186/s12936-018-2394-2

Lengeler C, Snow RW. From efficacy to effectiveness: Insecticide-treated bed nets in Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000;74:325-32

Guyatt H, Ochola S. Use of bed nets given free to pregnant women in Kenya. The Lancet. 2003;362:1549-50.

Akaba GO, Otubu J, Agida ET, Onafowokan O. Knowledge and utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant women at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria's federal capital territory. Niger J Clin Pract [serial online] 2013;16:201-6.
[cited 2019 Oct 20]

Abasiattai AM, Etukumana EA, Umoiyoho AJ: Awareness and practice of malaria prevention strategies among pregnant women In Uyo, South South Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2009;11(1).
DOI: 10.5580/f8a

Oriji VK, Kasso T. Utilization of malaria prophylaxis amongst urban antenatal population. The Nigeria Health Journal. 2015;15(3):97-102.

Enato EFO, Okhamafe AO, Okpere EE. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of malaria management among pregnant women from two health care facilities in Nigeria. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica. 2007;86:33-36.

Titiloye MA, Onuosa EA, Arulogu OS. Malaria prevention practices among pregnant women resident in two Nigeria army barracks, Ibadan, South Western, Nigeria. J. Public Health Epidemiol. 2017; (4):92-98.
DOI: 10.5897/JPHE2017.0918

Aimakhu, CO, Olayemi O. Maternal hematocrit and pregnancy outcome in Nigerian women. West Afr J Med. 2003; 22:18–21.

Kayentao K, Kodio M, Newman RD, Maiga H, Doumtabe D, Ongoiba A, Coulibaly D, Keita AS, Maiga B, Mungai M, Parise M, Doumbo O. Comparison of intermittent preventive treatment with chemo-pro-phylaxis for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in Mali. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:109–116.
DOI: 10.1086/426400

Njoroge FK, Kimani VN, Ongore D, Akwale WS. Use of insecticide treated bed nets among pregnant women in Kilifi District, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 2009; 86(7):314-22.

Akaba GO, Otubu JAM, Agida ET. Onafowokan O. Knowledge and utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant women in FCT, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2013;16(2):201-6.
DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.110162

Chukwuocha UM, Dozie INS, Onwuliri COE, Ukaga CN, Nwoke BEB, Nwankwo BO, Nwoke EA, Nwaokoro JC, Nwoga KS, Udujih OG, Iwuala CC, Ohaji ET, Morakinyo OM Adindu BC. Perceptions on the use of insecticide treated nets in parts of the Imo River Basin, Nigeria: Implica-tions for preventing malaria in pregnancy. African Journal of Re-productive Health. 2010;14(1):122.

Manu G, Boamah-Kaali EA, Febir LG, Ayipah E, Owusu-Agyesi S.Asante KP. Low utilization of insecticide-treated bed net among pregnant women in the middle belt of Ghana. Malaria Research and Treatment. 2017(1):1-7.
DOI: 10.1155/2017/7481210

West PA, Protopopoff N, Wright A, Kivaju Z, Tigererwa R, Mosha FW, et al. Enhanced protection against malaria by indoor residual spraying in addition to insecticide treated nets: Is It dependent on transmission intensity or net usage? PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0115661.
DOI:10.1371/journal. pone.0115661