Allelopathy a Tool for Sustainable Weed Management

Main Article Content

K. H. Shirgapure
Pritam Ghosh


Phytochemicals released by plant species into the environment inhibit the emergence and growth of surrounding plants by changing their metabolic activity or impacting on their soil community mutualists referred as allelopathy. Allelochemicals are the compounds produced from the secondary metabolism of higher plants and microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect on many processes in ecosystems and agro-ecosystems.  In complex agro-ecosystem both crop and weed shows allelophathic effect. Allelochemicals from crop plant affect on other crop and weed while allelochemicals from weed effect on other weed and crop, beside this both weed and crop also shows autoallelopathy. Hence scientific and proper estimation of allelopathic plant, their allelochemical and susceptible weed species is necessary through advance research. This is helps to increase agricultural production, reduction in cost of pesticides, environment hazard, and way for the sustainable weed management and sustainable development of agricultural production as well as ecological systems.

Allelopathy, allelochemicals, crop, weed.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shirgapure, K. H., & Ghosh, P. (2020). Allelopathy a Tool for Sustainable Weed Management. Archives of Current Research International, 20(3), 17-25.
Review Article


Molisch H. Der Einfluss einer pflane auf die andere-Allelopathie. Fischer, Jena; 1937.

Rice EL. Allelopathy. 2nd Ed., Academic Press, Orlando, FL, USA. 1984;67-68.

Cheng F, Cheng Z. Research progress on the use of plant allelopathy in agriculture and the physiological and ecological mechanisms of allelopathy. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:10-20.

Fernandez C, Monnier Y, Santonja M, Gallet C, Weston LA, Prevosto B, Saunier et al. The impact of competition and allelopathy on the trade-off between plant defense and growth in two contrasting tree species. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:594.

Muller CH. Allelopathy as a factor in ecological process. Vegetatio. 1969;18: 348-357.

Katsuichiro K. Factors Affecting Phytotoxic Activity of Allelochemicals in Soil. Weed Bio Manage. 2004;4(1):1-7.

Hubbell SP, Wiemer DF, Adejare A. An antifungal terpenoid defends a neotropical tree (Hymenaea) against attack by fungus growing ants (Atta). Oecologia. 1983;60: 321–327.

Rizvi SJH, Haque H, Singh VK, Rizvi VA. Allelopathy: Basic and applied aspects. Chapmann and Hall Publishers. 1992;1-8.

Radosevich SR, Holt JS, Ghersa C. Ecology of weeds and invasive plants: Relationship to agriculture and natural resource management. New York: Wiley. 2007;454.

Albuquerque MB, Santos RC, Lima LM, Melo FPDA, Nogueira RJMC, Câmara CAG. Allelopathy, an alternative tool to improve cropping systems. Rev Agron Sust Dev. 2010;31:379-395.

Bold HC, Alexopoulos CJ, Delevoryas D. Morphology of plants and fungi. New York: Harper and Row. 1980;819.

Wink M. Biochemistry, physiology and ecological functions of secondary metabolites. In: Wink M, editor. Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism, 2nd edition. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 2010;1-19.

Kroymann J. Natural diversity and adaptation in plant secondary metabolism. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:246-25.

Michelangelo MT, Ribas AV, Alvadi AB, Henrique HB, Antonio SF. Allelopathy: Driving mechanisms governing its activity in agriculture. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2016;11(1):53-60.

Croteau R, Kutchan TM, Lewis NG. Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Rockville: American Society of Plant Biologists. 2000;1250–1268.

Rice EL. Allelopathy. New York: Academic Press; 1974.

Soleiman J, Somayye H, Shahram S. Assessment of Auto-allelopatic Potential of Broomcorn (Sorghum vulgare var. technicum). International Conference on Asia Agriculture and Animal IPCBEE. 2011;13:116-120.

Satoshi N, Yutaka I, Masaaki H, Akihiko M. Concurrently inhibitory and allelopathic effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum Spicatum on growth of Blue-green Algae. J Japan Society Water Environ. 1998;21:663-669.

Chon SU, Jennings JA, Nelson CJ. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) autotoxicity: Current status. Allelopathy J. 2006;18:57–80.

Hao WY, Ren LX, Ran W, Shen QR. Allelopathic effects of root exudates from watermelon and rice plants on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Plant Soil. 2010;33(6):485-497.

Halbrendt JM. Allelopathy in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. J Nematol. 1996;28:8-14.

Macias FA, Marin D, Oliveros BA, Varela RM, Simonet AM, Carrera C. Allelopathy as a new strategy for sustainable ecosystems development. Biol Sci Pace. 2003;17:18-23.

Zeng RS, Mallik AU, Luo SM. Allelopathy in sustainable agriculture and forestry. New York: Springer Press; 2008.

Bhadoria P. Allelopathy: A natural way towards weed management. Am J Exp Agric. 2011;1:7-20.

Iqbal J, Cheema ZA, An M. Inter cropping of field crops in cotton for the management of purple nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). Plant Soil. 2007;300:163-171.

Jabran K, Mahajan G, Sardana V, Chauhan BS. Allelopathy for weed control in agricultural systems. Crop Prot. 2015; 72:57-65.

Dhima KV, Vasilakoglou IB, Eleftherohorinos IG, Lithourgidis AS. Allelopathic potential of winter cereals and their cover crop mulch effect on grass weed suppression and corn development. Crop Sci. 2006;46:345–352.

Hisashi KN, Morifumim H, Takeshi I, Katsumi O, Hiroya K. Contribution of momilactone A and B to rice allelopathy. J Plant Physio. 2010;167(10):787-791.

Bi H, Zeng R, Su L, An M, Luo S. Rice Allelopathy Induced by Methyl Jasmonate and Methyl Salicylate. J Chemil Ecol. 2007;33:1089-1093.

Lin WX, He HQ, Guo YC, Liang YY, Chen FY. Rice allelopathy and its physio biochemical characteristics. Chin J Appl Ecol. 2001;12:871-875.

Franck ED, Agnes MR, Zhiqiang P, Scott RB, Anne LG, Stephen OD. Sorgoleone. Phytochemistry. 2010;71(10):1032-1039.

Tesfamariam T, Yoshinaga H, Deshpande SP, Srinivasa RP, Sahrawat KL, Ando Y, et al. Biological nitrification inhibition in sorghum: The role of sorgoleone production. Plant Soil. 2014; 379:325-335.

Burgos NR, Talbert RE. Differential activity of allelochemicals from Secale cereale in seedling bioassays. Weed Sci. 2000;48:302-310.

Hisashi KN, Yuichi S, Koji T, Seiji K, Shosuke Y. Isolation and identification of allelochemicals in maize seedlings. Plant Prod. Sci. 2000;3(l):43-46.

Farhoudi R, Lee DJ. Allelopathic effects of barley extract (Hordeum vulgare) on sucrose synthase activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymatic activities of Hordeum spontoneum and Avena ludoviciana. Plant Natl Sci Ind B. 2013;83:447-452.

Khan ZR, Hassanali A, Overholt W, Khamis TM, Hooper AM, Pickett JA, et al. Control of witch weed Striga hermonthica by intercropping with Desmodium spp., and the mechanism defined as allelopathic. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:1871-1885.

Schulz M, Marocco A, Tabaglio V, Macias FA, Molinillo MG. Benzoxazinoids in rye allelopathy - from discovery to application in sustainable weed control and organic farming. J Chem Ecol. 2013;39:154-174.

Alsaadawi IS, Zwain KHY, Shahata HA. Allelopathic inhibition of growth of rice by wheat residues. Allelopathy J. 1998;5:163-169.

Putnam AR, Frank JD. Use of phytotoxic plant residues for selective weed control. Crop Prot. 1983;2:173-181.

Narwal SS, Sarmah MK, Tamak JC. Allelopathic strategies for wheat management in rice wheat rotation in northwestern India. In: M. Olofsdotter, ed. Allelopathy in Rice. Proceedings of the Workshop on Allelopathy in Rice, 1998; 117-131.

Lehman ME, Blum U. Cover crop debris effects on weed emergence as modified by environmental factors. Allelopathy J. 1997;4:69-88.

Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Kaur S. Crop allelopathy and its role in ecological agriculture. J Crop Prod. 2001;4:121-162.

Anderson RS, Rogerio M, Rita CSS, Rogerio BL, Wanderley DS, Osvaldo FF. The role of L-DOPA in plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 2010;9:e28275.

Zanuncio A, Teodoro PE, Ribeiro LP, Correa CCG, Oliveira M, Torres FE. Alelopatia de adubos verdes sobre Cyperus rotundus. Rev Ciencs Agrar. 2013;36:441-446.

Silva RMG, Brante RT, Santos VHM, Mecina GF, Silva LP. Phytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of turnip leaves (Raphanus Sativus L.). Biosci J. 2014; 30:891-902.

Zhang W, Ma Y, Wang Z, Ye X, Shui J. Some soybean cultivars have ability to induce germination of sunflower broomrape. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59715.

Poonpaiboonpipat T, Pangnakorn U, Suvunnamek U, Teerarak M, Charoenying P, Laosinwattana C. Phytotoxic effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus and its physiological mechanisms on barnyard dgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Ind Crop Prod. 2013;41:403-407.

Amal AAR, Showkat AH. Allelopathic Effect of Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) on Blady grass (Imperata Cylindrica). J Chemil Ecol. 1989;15(9):23-27.

Fujii Y. Allelopathic potential of some rice varieties. In: Proc. Biological Control and Integrated Management of Paddy and Aquatic Weeds in Asia. 1992;305-320.

Anaya AL. Allelopathy as a tool in the management of biotic resources. Crit Rev Plant Sci. 1999;18:697-739.

Narwal SS. Allelopathy in Crop Production, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 1994;288.

Leather GR. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) are allelopathic to weeds. Weed Sci. 1983;31:37-42.

Gliesmann SR, Garcia ER. The use of some tropical legumes in accelerating the recovery of productivity of soils in lowland humid tropics of Mexico. In: Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Crop Allelopathy in Agriculture 181 Future. 1979;292-303.

Qasem JR, Foy CL. Weed Allelopathy, Its Ecological Impacts and Future Prospects. J Crop Prod. 2010;4(2):113-119.

Martin VL, Maccoy EL, Dick WA. Allelopathy of crop residues influences corn seed germination and early growth. Agron J. 1990;82:555-560.

Bais HP, Kaushik S. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity: Fact not fiction. Communicative and Integrative Biology. 2010;3(5):468-470.

Marian M, Vosgan Z, Mare RO, Mihalescu L. Allelopathy relationship between plants and their use in organic farming. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering; 2017.

Drost DC, Doll JD. The allelopathic effect of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) on corn (Zea mays) and soyabeans (Glycine max). Weed Science. 1980;28: 229-233.

Horowitz M, Friedman J. Biological activity of subterranean residues of Cynodon dactylon L., Sorghum halapense L. and Cyperus rotundus L. Weed Research. 1971;11:88-93.

Babu GP, Hooda V, Audiseshamma K, Paramageetham C. Allelopathic effects of some weeds on germination and growth of Vigna mungo (L). Hepper. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3(4):122-128.

Vaidya V, Joshi N, Joshi A. Study allelopathic effects of weeds of alibaug on some common crops. International interdisciplinary conference on recent trends in science, Alibag; 2019.

Kumbhar BA, Patel DD. Allelopathic effects of different weed species on crop. J Pharm Sci Bioscientific Res. 2016;6(6): 801-805.

Shinde MA, Salve JT. Allelopathic Effects of Weeds on Triticum Aestivum. Int J Eng Sci. 2019; 9(2):19873-19876.

Chopra N, Tewari G, Tewari LM, Upreti B, Pandey N. Allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. weed extracts on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice and soybean. Advances in Agriculture. 2017;33:305-309.

Kadioglu I, Yanar Y, Asav U. Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants. J Environ Biol. 2005;26(2):169-173.

Javaid A. Allelopathic interactions in mycorrhizal associations. Allelopathy J. 2007;20:29-42.

Li ZH, Shen YX. Allelopathic effects of different varieties of Medicago sativa weed regrowth in winter. Sin. Acta Pratac. 2006;15:36-42.

Chon SU, Nelson CJ. Allelopathy in compositae plants A review. Agron Sustain Dev. 2010; 30:349-358.

Demuner AJ, Barbosa LCA, Chinelatto LS, Reis C, Silva AA.mSorption and persistence of sorgoleone in red-yellow latosol. Q Nova. 2005;28:451-455.