Current Rehabilitative Concepts in Ear Nose and Throat Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (UNIMEDTH): Challenges Encountered

Akpalaba I.O. *

E.N.T. Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, (UNIMEDTH), Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Olarinoye T.O.

E.N.T. Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, (UNIMEDTH), Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Ikong M.A.

E.N.T. Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, (UNIMEDTH), Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

James. R. O

E.N.T. Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, (UNIMEDTH), Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Introduction: Unaddressed communication disorders are multidimensional, affecting individuals physiologically, psychologically and emotionally. The quality of life of these individuals can be improved with rehabilitative measures, justifying this study.

The study therefore aims to assess the impact of rehabilitation on these patients, determine the challenges and proffer possible solutions.

Methods: Eighteen months prospective study on audiological and speech disorders among ENT patients in the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Ondo State, from April 2021 to September 2022 was carried out. History was taken, general examination and full E.N.T. examinations were done. Those with audiological disorders from canal blockage due to foreign bodies, debris and impacted wax had ear syringing. Others with persistent audiological condition were further evaluated and treated accordingly, with Hearing Aids trial and fitting inclusive. Patients with speech disorder had speech therapy after baseline audiological screening. Data were represented in tables and figures. P value < 0.05 was statistically significant.

Results: 930 patients presented at the ENT clinic. 537 (57.74%) females and 393 (42.26%) males. Of this, 405 (43.55%) patients had audiological conditions while 23 (2.47%) had speech disorders. Impacted wax, tinnitus, hearing loss, foreign body in the ear and delayed speech development were commonest. 297 had syringing while 105 patients were further evaluated. 369 of 405 patients were successfully rehabilitated. 3 stroke patients had good speech recovery.

Predominant challenges encountered were unavailability of instruments and uncooperativeness of elderly patients. Weekly savings and incorporation of dedicated relatives for home therapy ensures solutions respectively.

Conclusion: Rehabilitation in E.N.T., though gradually progressive, is beneficial. The guiding concept is patience.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, concept, audiological, disorder, speech

How to Cite

Akpalaba I.O., Olarinoye T.O., Ikong M.A., & James. R. O. (2024). Current Rehabilitative Concepts in Ear Nose and Throat Department, University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (UNIMEDTH): Challenges Encountered. Archives of Current Research International, 24(4), 110–117.


Download data is not yet available.


Varsha NS, Praveena J. Prevalence of speech language and hearing impairment in school going children of rural area: A longitudinal study. International-Journal-of-Community-Medicine-and-Public Health. 2020;23946032 DOI:

Somefun OA, Lesi FEA, Danfulani MA, Olusanya BO. Communication disorders in Nigeria Children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Apr;70(4):697-702 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2005.09.00 Epub 2005 Oct 6.

American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA). Adult hearing screening (practice portal); 2022 December 22 Available: portal/professional-issues/Adult-Hearing-Screening/

Fakhrerahimi S, Dahqan A, Bakhshani NM. Causes of speech disorders in primary School Students of Zahedan. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; 2013.

Goulart BNG, Chari BM, Almeida CPB. Factors associated with speech, hearng and language disorders among children in a prmary care outpatient center. J Hum Growth Dev. 2017; 27(3):281-287.


World Health Organization. Hearing screening considerations for implementation. 2021;978-92(4):0032767. Available:

Aremu SK, Afolabi OA, Alabi BS, Elemukan IO. Epidemilogical profile of speech and language disorder in North Central Nigeria. Int J Biomed Sci. 2011 Dec;7(4):268–272.

Adegbiyi WA, Olajide GT, Olubi OO, Ali A, Adeniyi A. Community disorders among Children in a Developing Country, Nigeria. Int J. biomedical Sciences. 2019;12(4):1-6. Available:HTTP://EPRINTS.ABUAD.EDU.NG/ID/EPRINT/788

Ikenga VO, Oparaodu UA. Pattern of communication disorders in tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021;11(2):240-242. Available:

Iloeje SO, Izuora GI. The pattern and prognosis of speech disorders among children in Enugu, Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics; 1991. Available:

Olusanya BO, Okolo AA, Ijaduola GTA. The hearing profile of Nigeria School Children. International-Journal-of-Pediatric-Otorhinolaryngology. 2000;55:(173-179): Available:

Lasisi AO, Abiona T, Gureye O. The prevalence and correlates of self-reported hearing impairment in the Ibadan Study of Ageing. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Aug; 104(8): 518–523.

DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2010.03.009

Shuaibu IY, Chitumu D, Mohammed B, Shofoluwe N, Usman MA, Bakari A Lawal. Pattern of hearing loss in a tertiary hospital in the north Western Nigeria. Sahel Medical Journal; 2018. DOI: 10.4103/smj.smj_57_17

Nwosu N. Systemic review of the prevalence of speech and language disorders in Nigeria. International Journal of Humanity and Social Science. May 2015;5:5. ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online)

Bakare MO, Ebigbo PO, Ubochi VN. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: A stopgap assessment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2012;23(2):513-518.

Kodiya AM, Afolabi OA, Ahmad BM. The burden of hearing loss in Kaduna, Nigeria: A 4-Year Study at the National Ear Care Centre. Ear Nose and Throat Journal. 2012:9. Available:

Ravi SK, Sumanth P, Saraswati T, Chinoor MAB, Ashwini N, Ahemed E. Prevalence of communication disorders among school children in Ballari, South India: A cross-sectional study. Clinical Ep and Global H; 2021. Available:

Konadath S, Chatni S, Lakshmi MS, Saini JK. Prevalence of communication disorders in a group of Islands in India. Clinical Epidemiology and global Health. 2017(79-86).

Brodie A, Smith B, Ray J. The impact of rehabilitation on quality of life after hearing loss: A systematic review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 275(10): 2435–2440. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-018-5100-7

Nwosu N. Practical steps in the rehabilitation of children with speech and language impairment in Nigeria. Niger J Paed. 2015;42(4):293–298. DOI :

Meryer C, Hickson L. What factors influence help-seeking for hearing impairment and hearing aid adoption in older adults? Int J Audiol. 2012 Feb; 51(2):66-74 DOI: 10.3109/14992027.2011.611178

Edgett LMD. Help-seeking for advanced rehabilitation by adults with hearing loss: An ecological model. PhD Thesis. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia; 2002.

Caldera AV, Wickremasinge R, Munansinghe TU, Perera KM, Mutiah N, Tilakarathne D, et al. Availability of rehabilitation services for communication disorders in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional survey. BMJ; 2023. Available:

Bhattarai B, Sanghavi T, Abhishek BP. Challenges in delivering tele-practice services for communication disorders among Audiologists and Speech Language Pathologists. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. 2022;74:4360-4365.

Brouilette R. Rehabilitation of hearing loss: Challenges and opportunities in developing countries. Jour. 2011/01/01: 141-153.

World Health Organization. Deafness and hearing loss; 2019 Available: and- hearing

Rahardjo S. Hearing impaired: Invisible disability. In Hearing Impairment: An Invisible Disability How You Can Live With a Hearing Impairment. Tokyo: Springer Japan. 2004 Aug 18:14-19.

Cheng YF, Xirasagar S, Yang TH, Kuo NW, Lin HC. Association of hearing loss with land transport accidents: A nationwide population-based study. International Journal of Audiology. 2022 Sep 2;61(9): 731-735.

Carlsson PI, Hjaldahl J, Magnuson A, Ternevall E, Edén M, Skagerstrand Å, Jönsson R. Severe to profound hearing impairment: Quality of life, psychosocial consequences and audiological rehabilitation. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2015 Sep 25;37(20):1849-1856.

Li JN, Chen S, Zhai L, Han DY, Eshraghi AA, Feng Y, Yang SM, Liu XZ. The advances in hearing rehabilitation and cochlear implants in China. Ear and Hearing. 2017 Nov 1;38(6):647-652.