Dynamics of the Digital Workforce: Assessing the Interplay and Impact of AI, Automation, and Employment Policies

Oluwaseun Oladeji Olaniyi *

University of the Cumberlands, 104 Maple Drive, Williamsburg, KY 40769, United States of America.

Favour Amarachi Ezeugwa

Prairie View A&M University, 100 University Dr, Prairie View, TX77446, USA.

Chinenye Gbemisola Okatta

Bowie State University, 14000 Jericho Park Rd, Bowie, MD 20715, United States.

Abayomi Shamsudeen Arigbabu

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Princess Chimmy Joeaneke

University of the Cumberlands, 104 Maple Drive, Williamsburg, KY 40769, United States of America.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The rapid integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation within various sectors poses challenges and opportunities for the global workforce. This study investigates the implications of AI and automation on employment patterns, skills requirements, and remote work infrastructures. Employing a quantitative research design, data was collected through a structured questionnaire administered to 482 professionals across the information technology, healthcare, and finance sectors. The analysis was conducted using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) to test hypotheses related to the impact of technological advancements on employment. Major findings indicate a significant, albeit complex, impact of AI and automation on employment. Most respondents recognized AI and automation as catalysts for creating new job opportunities and enhancing productivity, particularly in sectors with high integration of digital technologies. However, the study also highlighted substantial concerns regarding the widening skills gap and the adequacy of current employment policies in managing the transition. Specifically, sixty-nine percent of respondents identified a significant skills gap necessitating urgent educational and training interventions. About half of the respondents viewed existing employment policies as inadequate in addressing the challenges of rapid technological changes. The study concludes that while AI and automation are reshaping the employment landscape, creating new types of jobs, and altering skill requirements, there is a critical need for proactive adaptation strategies. Recommendations include developing targeted reskilling programs, adaptive employment policies, and robust remote work infrastructures to support an increasingly digital workforce. These strategies are essential to harness the benefits of digital transformations while mitigating potential adverse effects on employment.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, automation, workforce transformation, employment policies, skills gap, remote work infrastructure, structural equation modeling

How to Cite

Olaniyi , O. O., Ezeugwa , F. A., Okatta, C. G., Arigbabu , A. S., & Joeaneke , P. C. (2024). Dynamics of the Digital Workforce: Assessing the Interplay and Impact of AI, Automation, and Employment Policies. Archives of Current Research International, 24(5), 124–139. https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2024/v24i5690


Download data is not yet available.


Ashri R. The AI-Powered Workplace: How Artificial Intelligence, Data, and Messaging Platforms Are Defining the Future of Work. Apress; 2019. Available:https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FjLDDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP5&dq=contemporary+workplace+characterized+by+an+unprecedented+transformation+driven+by+the+accelerating+integration+of+artificial+intelligence+(AI)+and+automation+technologies&ots=MBRGp5JmRc&sig=hKamAhHTvEU_9P9_l54gtKEHMxY

Benbya H, Davenport TH, Pachidi S. Artificial Intelligence in Organizations: Current State and Future Opportunities, papers.ssrn.com; 2020 Available:https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3741983

Sima V, Gheorghe IG, Subić J, Nancu D. Influences of the industry 4.0 revolution on the human capital development and consumer behavior: A systematic review. Sustainability. 2020;12(10):4035.


World Economic Forum. The Future of Jobs Report 2023. World Economic Forum; 2023 Available:https://www.weforum.org/publications/the-future-of-jobs-report-2023/digest/

Vermeulen B, Kesselhut J, Pyka A, Saviotti P. The impact of automation on employment: Just the usual structural change? Sustainability. 2018;10(5): 1661 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051661

Register F. Federal Register: Request Access. unblock.federalregister.gov; 2022 Available:https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2022/12/08/2022-26461/digital-literacy-and-resilience-request-for-information-rfi

Ellingrud K, et al. Generative AI and the Future of Work in America McKinsey; 2023 Available:www.mckinsey.co Available:https://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/our-research/generative-ai-and-the-future-of-work-in-america

World Economic Forum. Future of Jobs Report 2023; 2023 Available:https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2023.pdf

Özkiziltan D, Hassel A. Artificial Intelligence at Work: An Overview of the Literature. papers.ssrn.com; 2021. Available:https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3796746

Yaqub MZ, Alsabban A. Industry-4.0-Enabled Digital Transformation: Prospects, Instruments, Challenges, and Implications for Business Strategies. Sustainability. 2023;15(11):8553–8553.


Lai Z, Wang B, He X. Research on the digital transformation of producer services to drive manufacturing technology innovation. Sustainability. 2023;15(4): 3784–3784 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043784

Lee M, et al. How to respond to the fourth industrial revolution or the second information technology revolution? Dynamic new combinations between technology, market, and society through open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity. 2018;4(3):21 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030021

Autor DH. Work of the Past, Work of the Future. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 2019;109:1–32 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1257/pandp.20191110

Kurt R. Industry 4.0 in terms of industrial relations and its impacts on Labour life. Procedia Computer Science. 2019;158: 590–601 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.09.093

Abalaka AI, Olaniyi OO, Adebiyi OO. Understanding and overcoming the limitations to strategy execution in hotels within the small and medium enterprises sector. Asian Journal of Economics, business, and Accounting. 2023;23(22): 26–36 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2023/v23i221134

García-Pérez L, García-Garnica M, Olmedo-Moreno EM. Skills for a working future: How to bring about professional success from the educational setting. Education Sciences. 2021;11(1):27 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11010027

Nae TM, Florescu MS, Bălășoiu GI. Towards social justice: Investigating the role of labor, globalization, and governance in reducing socio-economic inequality within post-communist countries. Sustainability. 2024;16(6):2234 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su16062234

Olaniyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Olabanji SO, Asonze CU, Ajayi SA. IOT security in the era of ubiquitous computing: A multidisciplinary approach to addressing vulnerabilities and promoting resilience. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2023;16(4):354–371 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2023/v16i4397

Tschang FT, Mezquita EA. Artificial intelligence as augmenting automation: Implications for employment. Academy of Management Perspectives. 2020;35(4).

Oluwaseun Oladeji Olaniyi, Christopher Uzoma Asonze, Samson Abidemi Ajayi, Samuel Oladiipo Olabanji, Chinasa Susan Adigwe. A regressional study on the impact of organizational security culture and transformational leadership on social engineering awareness among bank employees: the interplay of security education and behavioral change. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2023;23(23):128–143 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2023/v23i231176

Marquis YA, Oladoyinbo TO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO, Ajayi SS. Proliferation of AI tools: A multifaceted evaluation of user perceptions and emerging trend. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2024;18(1):30–35 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2024/v18i1596

Acemoglu D, Restrepo P. Automation and new tasks: How technology displaces and reinstates labor. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2019;33(2):3–30 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.33.2.3

Pirrolas OAC, Correia PMAR. Dimensionality of the causes of churning: A multivariate statistical analysis. Merits. 2022;3(1):21–36 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3010002

Olaniyi OO, Shah N, Bahuguna N. Quantitative analysis and comparative review of dividend policy dynamics within the banking sector: Insights from global and U.S. financial data and existing literature. Asian Journal of Economics, business, and accounting. 2023;23(23): 179–199 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2023/v23i231180

Oladoyinbo TO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO, Adebiyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Alao AI. Exploring the challenges of artificial intelligence in data integrity and its influence on social dynamics. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2024;18(2):1–23 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2024/v18i2601

Adebiyi OO, Olabanji SO, Olaniyi OO. Promoting inclusive accounting education through the integration of stem principles for a diverse classroom. Asian Journal of Education and social studies. 2023;49(4): 152–171 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajess/2023/v49i41196

Tilly Z, Kwan LZ, Shu Shin L. Unraveling the threads: A comprehensive analysis of government policies on unemployment, worker empowerment, and labor market dynamics. Law and Economics. 2022;16 (1):69–87 Available:https://journals.ristek.or.id/index.php/LE/article/view/52

Babikian J. Balancing acts: Ethics, regulation, and accountability in AI law and policy. Journal of Management Science Research Review. 2023;1(1):1–23 Available:https://jmsrr.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/19

Olaniyi OO, Ugonnia JC, Olaniyi FG, Arigbabu AT, Adigwe CS. Digital collaborative tools, strategic communication, and social capital: unveiling the impact of digital transformation on organizational dynamics. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(5):140–156 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i5444

Li L. Reskilling and upskilling the future-ready workforce for industry 4.0 and beyond. Information Systems Frontiers. 2022;24(3):1–16 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-022-10308-y

Olaniyi OO. Ballots and padlocks: Building digital trust and security in democracy through information governance strategies and blockchain technologies. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(5):172–189 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i5447

Van Laar E, Van Deursen AJAM, Van Dijk JAGM, De Haan J. Determinants of 21st-century skills and 21st-century digital skills for workers: A systematic literature review. SAGE Open. 2020;10(1): 215824401990017 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019900176

Lythreatis S, El-Kassar AN, Singh SK. The digital divide: A review and future research agenda. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2021;175(175):121359 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.121359

Adigwe CS, Olaniyi OO, Olagbaju OO, Olaniyi FG. Leading in a time of crisis: The coronavirus effect on leadership in America. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2024;24(4):1–20 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2024/v24i41261

Burbules NC, Fan G, Repp P. Five trends of education and technology in a sustainable future. Geography and Sustainability. 2020;1(2).


Khan N, Sarwar A, Chen TB, Khan S. Connecting digital literacy in higher education to the 21st century workforce. Knowledge Management and E-Learning. 2022;14(1):46–61 Available:https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1348223

Olabanji SO, Oladoyinbo OB, Asonze CU, Oladoyinbo TO, Ajayi SA, Olaniyi OO. Effect of adopting AI to explore big data on personally identifiable information (PII) for financial and economic data transformation. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2024;24(4):106–125.


Costan E, et al. Education 4.0 in developing economies: A systematic literature review of implementation barriers and future research agenda. Sustainability. 2021;13(22):12763 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212763

Jimenez G, et al. Digital health competencies for primary healthcare professionals: A scoping review. International Journal of Medical Informatics. 2020;143:104260 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104260

Jameaba M. Digitization, fintech disruption, and financial stability: The case of the indonesian banking sector. SSRN Electronic Journal; 2020 DOI:https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3529924

Olabanji SO, Oladoyinbo TO, Asonze CU, Adigwe CS, Okunleye OJ, Olaniyi OO. Leveraging fintech compliance to mitigate cryptocurrency volatility for secure us employee retirement benefits: Bitcoin ETF case study. Asian Journal of Economics, Business, and Accounting. 2024;24(4): 147–167 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2024/v24i41270

None Muhammad Dairobi and Hastin Umi Anisah. Influence of Digital Literacy, Customer Intimacy, and Brand Image on Competitive Advantage. Open Access Indonesia Journal of Social Sciences. 2024;7(3):1506–1516 DOI:https://doi.org/10.37275/oaijss.v7i3.243

Olabanji SO, Marquis YA, Adigwe CS, Abidemi AS, Oladoyinbo TO, Olaniyi OO. Ai-driven cloud security: Examining the impact of user behavior analysis on threat detection. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(3):57–74 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i3424

Raghavan A, Demircioglu MA, Orazgaliyev S. COVID-19 and the new normal of organizations and employees: An overview. Sustainability. 2021;13(21): 11942.


Rymaniak J, Lis K, Davidavičienė V, Pérez-Pérez M, Martínez-Sánchez Á. From Stationary to Remote: Employee Risks at Pandemic Migration of Workplaces. Sustainability. 2021;13(13): 7180.


Arigbabu AT, Olaniyi OO, Adigwe CS, Adebiyi OO, Ajayi SA. Data governance in AI - enabled healthcare systems: A case of the project nightingale. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17 (5):85–107 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i5441

Shimaponda-Nawa M, Nwaila GT. Integrated and intelligent remote operation centers (I2rocs): assessing the human–machine requirements for 21st-century mining operations. Minerals Engineering. 2024;207:108565 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2023.108565

Mathur P. Cloud computing infrastructure, platforms, and software for scientific research. Series in bioengineering. 2024; 89–127 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-97-1017-1_4

Petla JRK. Cloud computing technologies transforming public sector remote work standards post COVID-19. Social Science Research Network; 2023 Available:https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4419295

Ramesh Nyathani. Preparing for the Future of Work: How HR Tech is Shaping Remote Work. Journal of Technology and Systems. 2023;5(1):60–73 DOI:https://doi.org/10.47941/jts.1498

Olabanji SO. Ai for identity and access management (IAM) in the cloud: Exploring the potential of artificial intelligence to improve user authentication, authorization, and access control within cloud-based systems. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science. 2024;17(3):38–56 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i3423

Mihailović A, Cerović Smolović J, Radević I, Rašović N, Martinović N. COVID-19 and Beyond: employee perceptions of the efficiency of teleworking and its cybersecurity implications. Sustainability. 2021;13(12):675 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126750

Amankwah-Amoah J, Khan Z, Wood G, Knight G. COVID-19 and digitalization: The Great Acceleration. Journal of Business Research. 2021;136(136):602–611 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.08.011

Amah OE, Ogah M. Technology and Its Impact on Work-Life Integration. Springer eBooks. 2021;59–86 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-69113-4_4

Williamson S, Pearce A, Dickinson H, Weeratunga V, Bucknall F. Future of work literature review: Emerging trends and issues. apo.org.au; 2021, Available:https://apo.org.au/node/314497

Linnoinen K. The office as a tool for creating commonality: How the employee experience of office commonality and belonging has changed during the Coronavirus pandemic. aaltodoc.aalto.fi; 2020 Available:https://aaltodoc.aalto.fi/handle/123456789/102390

Adigwe CS, Mayeke NR, Olabanji SO, Okunleye OJ, Joeaneke PC, Olaniyi OO. The evolution of terrorism in the digital age: Investigating the adaptation of terrorist groups to cyber technologies for recruitment, propaganda, and cyberattacks. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting. 2024;24(3):289–306 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2024/v24i31287

Fuchs C, Phillips C. Working together to get it right: Creating a just-in-time professional development course for faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal on Innovations in Online Education; 2022, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1615/intjinnovonlineedu.2022045084

Mayeke NR, Arigbabu AT, Olaniyi OO, Okunleye OJ, Adigwe CS. Evolving Access Control Paradigms: A Comprehensive Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Security Risks and System Assurance in Cyber Engineering. 2024;17(5):108–124 DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcos/2024/v17i5442

Adamowicz M. COVID-19 Pandemic as a Change Factor in the Labour Market in Poland. Sustainability. 2022;14(15):9197 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159197

Ali AD, Narine LK, Hill PA, Bria DC. Factors affecting remote workers’ job satisfaction in Utah: An exploratory study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023;20(9): 5736.


Ayache J, Heym N, Sumich A, Rhodes D, Connor AM, Marks S. Feeling Closer Despite the Distance: How to Cultivate Togetherness Within Digital Spaces. 202 Available:www.igi-global.co Available:https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/feeling-closer-despite-the-distance/275127

Beckel JLO, Fisher GG. Telework and worker health and well-being: A review and recommendations for research and practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(7):3879 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073879

Maheshwari R, Veronique Van Acker, Gerber P. Commuting vs teleworking: How does it impact the relationship between commuting satisfaction and subjective well-being. Transportation research. Part A, Policy and practice. 2024;182:104041–104041 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2024.104041

The end of the active work break? Remote work, sedentariness and the role of technology in creating active break-taking norms. Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction for Work; 2022 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/3533406.3533409

Forte T, Santinha G, Carvalho SA. The COVID-19 Pandemic Strain: Teleworking and Health Behavior Changes in the Portuguese Context. Healthcare. 2021;9 (9):1151 DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091151

Scott CPR, Dieguez TA, Deepak P, Gu S, Wildman JL. Onboarding during COVID-19: Create structure, connect people, and continue adapting. Organizational Dynamics. 2021;51(2): 100828 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2021.100828