Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Modelling of Bivariate Competing Risks with Archimedean Copulas

Cigdem Topcu Guloksuz

Archives of Current Research International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230229

In this study we consider Archimedean copula functions to obtain estimates of cause-specific distribution functions in bivariate competing risks set up. We assume that two failure times of the same group are dependent and this dependency can be modeled by an Archimedean copula. Based on the Archimedean copula which gives best fit to the competing risk data with independent censoring we obtain the estimates of cause specific sub distributions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Anatomical Variations of the Coronary Circulation among Sri Lankan Adults

S. R. Hulathduwa

Archives of Current Research International, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230230

The coronary circulation has been the centre of focus of many anatomists, pathologists, cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, physiologists and even the general public especially since the introduction of coronary angiography during the 1960's. Though a large number of data regarding the coronary circulation of the Western populations are available, research about coronary circulation of the Sri Lankan population is comparatively rare. This study comprises of data from 150 autopsy specimens of adult Sri Lankans died due to non-cardiac causes. 99.3% had a tricuspid aortic valve while only in 0.7% the aortic valve was bi-cuspid. The incidence of the ectopic origin of the left and the right coronary artery was equal (1.3%), and the posterior sinus was devoid of coronary ostia. A 55.3% of the study population had a single coronary artery ostium for each main coronary artery. The corresponding figure for the left coronary artery was 91.3%. Six percent (06%) of the right coronary ostia were positioned significantly above the sinus while the corresponding figure for the left coronary ostia was higher (17.5%). The average left ventricular wall thickness for males and females were 13mm and 12mm respectively. Significant muscular bridging (in relation to at-least one coronary artery) was found in 19.3% of the study population. The study concludes that variations in the cardiac anatomy are commoner than expected. As per Kitzman chart, cardiac dimensions of the Sri Lankans are somewhat smaller compared to the dimensions of the Western populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prominence of Information Richness in Accepting Online Based Self-Service Technologies

Badra Sandamali Galdolage

Archives of Current Research International, Page 31-42
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230231

Most of the service organizations are now moving to provide their services at a remote basis with Self-Service Technologies (SSTs). This is a natural outcome of technological maturity and would be the norm of many service transactions in future. Currently in many of the services, customers have the choice to use either SSTs or physical service encounters with service employees according to their desire. However, the future is predicted to replace many service employees with self-service machines and humanoid robots. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the service organizations to make their customers ready for such a future. Use of self-service technologies typically take place without the presence of organization’s service staff. Thus, machines should provide necessary guidance and instructions to customers so that they can perform well without difficulties. If SSTs are not rich with information, customers would be in trouble without proceeding with their transactions successfully. Therefore, the quality of information would be a matter for successful online based self -service transactions. Thus, the aim of this study is to understand the information richness in online based self-service technologies from the customer perspective. Using the qualitative approach, semi structured interviews were conducted with 25 individuals who have experience in using online based SSTs. The study found seven key factors which determine the richness of information in online platforms namely ‘Relevance, Timeliness, Accuracy, Clarity, Consistency, Sufficiency and Simplicity’. The study enriches the theoretical landscapes by broadening the understanding on significance of information richness in accepting online based self-service technologies while on practical ground provides insights for service providers in designing their SSTs with rich and necessary information which is required to perform successful transactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Non-Dermatophytic Molds Associated with Cutaneous Mycoses in Cattle in Abia and Imo States, Nigeria

C. N. Nwofor, C. A. Oyeka, N. E. Onyenwe, M. O. Echeta, Y. M. Tatfeng

Archives of Current Research International, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230232

Aims: To study the prevalence and identification of non-dermatophytic molds associated with cattle in Abia and Imo States, Nigeria.

Study Design: The systematic random sampling method was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 2255 cattle was encountered, out of which 451 skin samples from both infected and asymptomatic animals were sampled from six cattle markets in Abia  and Imo States, Nigeria between January and August, 2018.

Methodology: The 451 samples were analysed for their colonial and microscopic morphology and molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction of the 16SrRNA internal transcriber spacer (ITS) sequence techniques were carried out on the isolates. Pathogenicity of the isolates were determined.

Results: A  total of 16 non-dermatophytic  molds were obtained from 451samples analysed at different frequency of  occurrences from  the cattle skins in both states and these  include  Aspergillusfumigatus (3.6%),  Aspergillus  terreus (2.7%),  Aspergillus wewitschiae (13.5%), Aspergillus flavus (10.0%),  Aspergillus aculeatus (9.0%),  Aspergillus sydowii (5.0%),  Fusarium solani (3.2%),  Fusarium lichenicola (17.9%), Fusarium succisae (12.0%), Fusarium oxysporum (2.0%), Penicillium citrinum (3.0%), Curvularia kusanol (0.6%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (4.9%), Pestalotiopsis microspora (0.1%), Talaromyces kendrickii (0.1%) and Absidia specie (12.9%).

Conclusion: The study revealed that non-dermatophytic molds were highly prevalent and are possible causative agent of cutaneous mycoses in cattle. Pathogenicity evaluation carried out in this study revealed that Aspergillus welwitschiae, Cladosporium tenuissimum and Absidia sp. were highly virulent.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Severity of Malarial-Anemia in Pregnant Women in Biyem-Assi, Yaounde

Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga, Ngo Batandi Helen Virginie, Tchanga Chanceline Flore, Fegue Celestine Nadege

Archives of Current Research International, Page 57-68
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230233

Malaria is a parasitic disease endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa especially in Cameroon. Pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. Closely associated to malaria is anaemia. It is generally accepted that pregnancy ends with childbirth. The outcome of the pregnancy is highly affected by the presence of malaria and anaemia. The aim of ths study was to determine the prevalence and severity of malaria and anemia among pregnant women and the influence of socio-demographic factors on malaria and anaemia prevalences in pregnant women in Biyam- Assi Yaounde. Information on socio-demographic factors was collected from 302 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in health institutions within the Biyem-Assi Health District of Yaounde VI subdivision using a pretested questionnaire. Peripheral blood was collected and thick smears were prepared for screening Plasmodium parasites. The level of hemoglobin was measured using a haemoglobinometer URIT- 12. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Out of the 302 women, 146 (51.7%) had Plasmodium falciparum infected red cells. Among the 146 infected women, 36% had mild parasitaemia, 45% had moderate parasitaemia and 19% had severe parasitaemia. The prevalence of anemia in the study population was 53%. There was no significant association between the severity of malaria and the severity of anaemia (p > 0, 05). Parity had a significant influence on the severity of malaria. The level of school education significantly (p < 0, 05) influenced the severity of anaemia. Multiparous women were more affected by malaria than primiparous women. However, in relation to disease severity, primiparous women parasitized by Plasmodium presented a significantly higher risk of severe malaria compared to multiparous women. Malaria and anaemia prevalences in the study population were high (>50%), anaemia severity was directly associated to level of education. We recommend that more sensitization of women should be done to reduce ignorance, prevent malaria and in turn reduce anaemia and improve on the health of mother and baby.

Open Access Review Article

Women's Participation in Labor Force in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): A Review of Determinants and Impacts

Victoria Matatio Elia Guli, Nigatu Regassa Geda

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i230228

Background: In the last few decades, there has been a significant increase in women's participation in gainful employment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This scooping review has primarily aimed at assessing the key determinants and effects of women's involvement in the labor force in SSA.

Methods: The authors did the review based on 19 articles selected from PubMed and goggle search. The selection considered only those published in the last 15 years, conducted based on large sample from Sub-Saharan African countries, and those exclusively related to women’s Labor Force Participation (LFP). More than 80% of the reviewed studies (16 of the 19) employed a cross-sectional study design with quantitative approaches.

Results: The review witnessed that women's labor force participation in SSA is determined by various individual, household, and community characteristics. Women with lower fertility, living in poor economic condition (low wealth quantiles), and those with above primary education were more likely to participate in gainful employment. Other demographic factors explaining why some women participate in the labor force more often than others include women's age, marital status, number of under-five children, household size, and headship. Among the community variables, living in areas with better infrastructure (transport and communication) increased the likelihood of women’s participation in gainful employment. Nearly all studies showed significant positive impacts of women's labor force participation on several domains of women's life and household well-being, such as on women's nutrition, childcare, and health service utilization.

Conclusion: The review implies that despite concerns about some adverse impacts of women's participation in gainful employment (such as on childcare), most of the studies indicated positive effects of LFP on women's and children's health, nutrition, and overall household well-being in SSA.