Open Access Systematic Review Article

Analysis of Biomarkers in Response to High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): A Systematic Review Study

Douglas Daniel Costa Santiago, Jaqueline Santos Silva Lopes, Aníbal Monteiro de Magalhães Neto, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti Andrade

Archives of Current Research International, Page 59-72
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i330237

Introduction: Aerobic training with an acyclic and intermittent character triggers high metabolic stress, responsible for generating alterations in several blood biomarkers. Thus, investigations that clarify understanding of metabolic behavior in response to exercise seem pertinent, when considering the dynamics of prescription of physical training and recovery.

Objective: Demonstrate and discuss the behavior of blood biomarkers in response to High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT).

Methods: The PubMed/MEDLINE, Scielo, Lilacs, Bireme, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched from the oldest records available until January 16, 2020. The search was carried out by combining descriptors related to the terms: “HIIT”, “HIFT”, and “blood biomarkers”. To be included, studies were required to: 1) have a clinical trial design; 2) evaluate the effects of an HIIT and/or HIFT protocol; and 3) measure blood biomarkers before and after the training protocol. No restrictions were applied to the characteristics of the participants regarding health condition, age, sex, and level of training.

Results: In total, seven studies were included (n=221 participants, aged between 18 and 63 years) that analyzed different population profiles such as athletes, sedentary young people, patients with breast cancer, and diabetics. The biomarkers evaluated included analysis of muscle damage (C Reactive protein and CK); oxidative stress (antioxidant capacity); kidney injury (creatinine and urea); hormones (testosterone and cortisol); cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-4, and IF-γ); and hemogram. In general, the results demonstrated specific patterns for the investigated markers. Thus, there were increases in muscle damage markers, while in the inflammatory markers, there was a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. Despite the reduced values of the general blood count, markers such as neutrophils and basophils did not demonstrate statistically significant alterations. Serum testosterone levels were higher and cortisol was lower in the post-exercise period when compared to pre-exercise.

Conclusion: These data are of practical relevance when demonstrating patterns of physiological responses, which also characterize knowledge and understanding essential to determine adequate periodization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Students’ Preferences for Mobile Telecommunication Plans: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin, Chidimma E. Oliobi

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i330234

Aims: We employed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to investigate students’ preferences for mobile telecommunication plans in a South African University.

Study design: Locally optimal DCE were constructed for our choice sets using readily available ideas from blocked fractional factorial designs. This is in contrast to other approaches that may be more complex practically especially when the number of attributes is large.

Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in August 2017 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Edgewood Campus, Pinetown, South Africa.

Methodology: Four hypothetical mobile telecommunication companies were considered and the selected attributes were call rate, data speed, customer service, premiums and network coverage. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 180 respondents from the student population and data were collected via face-to-face interview. A  blocked fractional factorial design in  blocks each of size four was used to generate the choice sets used to obtain information from the respondents. An extra choice set was included to ascertain the consistency of the choices. Proportion of rational respondents was computed. Multinomial logit model was used to analyze the data and marginal willingness to pay estimates was obtained for the attributes.

Results: The proportion of “rational” respondents was 74%. At 0.1% level of significance, the students valued all the attributes except data speed in the process of choosing a particular mobile network. Furthermore, marginal willingness to pay estimates showed that students preferred to pay 51 cents more per minute to have very good customer service. They also preferred to pay extra 13 and 45 cents per minute for more premiums and better network coverage respectively.

Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence of what students perceive as the most important factors influencing their choice of mobile network service providers and these may have decision-making implications for South African-based telecommunication companies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Properties of Generalized Fibonacci Numbers: Identities, Recurrence Properties and Closed Forms of the Sum Formulas ∑nk=0 xkWmk+j

Yüksel Soykan

Archives of Current Research International, Page 11-38
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i330235

In this paper, closed forms of the summation formulas ∑nk=0 xkWmk+j for generalized Fibonacci numbers are presented. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, Pell-Lucas, Jacobsthal, Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. We present the proofs to indicate how these formulas, in general, were discovered. Of course, all the listed formulas may be proved by induction, but that method of proof gives no clue about their discovery. Moreover, we give some identities and recurrence properties of generalized Fibonacci sequence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gender on the Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services among Pastoralist Caregivers in Somali Region of Ethiopia

Olusola Oladeji, Bibilola Oladeji, Dick Chamla, Ann Robins, Vololomanitra Belalahy

Archives of Current Research International, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i330238

Ethiopia has made great effort in recent years to improve maternal and child health outcomes, however the uptake of services by women in the pastoralist communities of the country is still very low. This study was a cross-sectional study aimed to identify the effect of gender on the utilization of health services among pastoralists women. The study was conducted in Somali Region of Ethiopia between February and March 2020. A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods was used, and study population were married caregivers aged 15years and above. Bivariate analysis was done using t test and chi-square to test association among variables and p value was set at significant level of 5%. Husbands were reported as the main influence of the respondents’ decision about almost all the key households’ activities including health care seeking and financial decision making. Almost all caregivers (93.6%) who used the health facility took permission from their husbands and the test of association shows significant relationship between level of education and permission from respondents’ husbands which decreases with increasing level of education, p<0.05) but not affected by age. The care givers visited the health facilities because of their children more than themselves(58 per cent compared to 49.5 per cent for themselves) due to fear of being attended to by male health work. The study demonstrated the negative effect of gender inequities on health care seeking behaviours with women having limited control over family resources and decision-making over their health or that of their children.

Open Access Review Article

Extrusion Technology: A Tool for Value Addition to Food By-Products and Wastes

T. A. Dendegh, B. M. Yelmi, M. J. B. Abdullahi

Archives of Current Research International, Page 39-58
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i330236

The food processing industry generates an immense amount of waste and by-products, which leads to major concerns about the environment. However, most of these wastes, such as plant-derived by-products, are still nutritionally adequate for use in food manufacturing processes. Extrusion technology has brought rapid transformation, new research ideas, opportunities and innovations in the food processing industries. Owing to its versatile nature and many advantages it has over other types of processing methods, a wide range of food raw materials could be processed conveniently which are microbiologically safe and also retain nutrients under carefully selected conditions. It is effluents free during processing; therefore, has no negative impact on the environment and fewer worries about waste or effluent disposal. It has been shown by many authors how extrusion technology is applied to process safe and convenient food products from industrial by-products and waste generated during processing. By-products such as bran, grits, hulls, grape pomace, carrot pomace, apple pomace, were combined or formulated with other food such as corn amongst others to make products like biscuits, pasta amongst using extrusion technology. This is carried out under a controlled process and system parameters to ensure the best product quality. Additionally, anti-nutritional factors present in some of these by-products can be minimized by the extrusion process for use as a food additive or in the formulation of balanced foods. This review features the past research on the value addition process by extrusion to food processing by-products and wastes from fruits and vegetables, cereals and pulses and oilseed (cakes) processing amongst others.