Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Quaternary Mixture of Formulated Glyphosate and Phenols on Providencia vermicola Dehydrogenase Activity

Franca Ngozi Okafor, Michael Uchenna Orji, Christian Okechukwu Nweke, Samuel Chinedu Onuorah, Bright Obidinma Uba, Chinweike Unoma Dokubo

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i430239

Aims: To assess the toxicity of glyphosate (as an active ingredient in drysate), three phenols (2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenols and phenol) and quaternary mixtures of glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenol on the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of P. vermicola.

Study Design: The glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenol mixture ratios (%) were designed as: 25%:25%:25%:25%; 30%:20%:20%:30%, 40%:10%:10%: 40%; 50%:5%:30%:15% and 20%:20%:10%:50% for the respective mixtures in the concentration range of 0-1000 mg/L.

Place and Duration of Study: Silver Press Laboratory, Owerri Nigeria between July, 2016 and August, 2019.

Methodology:A laboratory scale study was carried on four toxicants using dehydrogenase inhibition test. The inhibition of dehydrogenase activity of the isolate by toxicant was calculated relative to the control. The percentage inhibition data generated was fitted into a logistic dose response model and Weibulleum to obtain their respective IC50.

Results:The results revealed that the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the mixtures on the Providencia vermicola were 247.17 ±10.20, 163.44 ± 8.18, 251.33 ± 45.25, 267.30 ± 8.76 and 178.93 ± 45.53 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity index (TI) model was used to evaluate the joint action toxicity of the mixtures on the test organism and was 60 % antagonistic.

Conclusion: Thus, these synergistic and additive interactions of formulated glyphosate with the intermediates of 2,4-D was possible against the dehydrogenase activity of Providenciavermicola an important plant growth promoting bacterium. The dynamics of the toxic effects thus would depend on the concentration of the compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Diversity Choices of Women: Evidence from Cassava Farming Households in Nigeria

Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin, Olutosin A. Otekunrin

Archives of Current Research International, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i430240

In this study, we examined dietary diversity of women in cassava farming households of South-West, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to collect data on 352 farming households comprising 212 women members (158 women of child-bearing age (20-49 years) and 54 women above 49 years) between December 2019 and March 2020 in Oyo and Ogun States of South-West, Nigeria. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain the dietary diversity scores (DDS) of women of child bearing age over a 24-hour recall period. The individual version of the Household dietary diversity questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain the DDS of women above 49 years. Separate logistic regression models were fitted to determine the influence of selected variables on the dietary diversity of the two categories of women. Our results show that more than half of the women (55.1%) in the child-bearing category (20-49 years) did not attain the minimum score of 5 out of 10 food groups. In the older women category (> 49 years), more than half of the women (68.5%) met the required 4 or more food groups. In the child-bearing age category, the odds of attaining the minimum dietary diversity level were 0.04% smaller with an additional increase in transport cost. Also, women who had female household heads were approximately three times more likely to attain the minimum dietary diversity level than women who did not have female household heads. In the older women category, the odds of attaining the minimum dietary diversity level were 98.9% smaller for women with good road condition than for women with poor road condition. These results are useful for evidence-based decision making that can have positive impact on the lives of women in cassava farming households.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Outcome of Newborns with Anaemia as Seen in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Boma Awoala West, Adaku Arthur, Josephine Enekole Aitafo, Hannah Omunakwe

Archives of Current Research International, Page 23-34
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i430241

Aim: There is paucity of literature on the prevalence of neonatal anaemia globally thus aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, determine the associations and the clinical outcome of neonates with anaemia.

Study Design: This was a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out among neonates admitted in the Special Care Baby Unit of Rivers State University Teaching Hospital over one year.

Methodology: A convenient sampling size of 402 neonates who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: Of 402 neonates assessed, 106(26.4%) had anaemia with PCV less than 42%.   Anaemia was observed more in males 56(52.8%), neonates delivered via Caesarean section 74(69.8%) and at gestational age less than 37 weeks 53(50%). Mild anaemia was observed mostly, 66(62.3%). Common pregnancy complications of mothers with anaemic babies were prolonged rupture of membranes 17(35.4%) and hypertension in pregnancy 14(29.2%) while the commonest morbidities in these neonates were probable sepsis 65(63.8%), neonatal jaundice 53(52%) and prematurity 53(52%). There was significant difference in anaemic and non-anaemic neonates with regards to mothers with gestational diabetes (P value < 0.0001). The factors associated with severe anaemia were probable sepsis and the duration of stay. Blood transfusion was carried out in 27(25.5%) neonates. An overall mortality of 7.5% was documented, severe anaemia being highest (21.4%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia was high being 26.4% and was observed more in males, preterms and babies delivered via Caesarean section. There was significant difference in anaemic and non-anaemic neonates with regards to mothers with gestational diabetes. Probable sepsis and duration of stay were significantly associated with severe anaemia. The mortality rate in neonates with anaemia was 7.5% thus there is need to assess newborns for anaemia with prompt intervention to prevent morbidity, mortality and long term sequelae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Why Telecommuting Became Redundant During the COVID‐19 Pandemic?

Wasantha Rajapakshe

Archives of Current Research International, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i430242

This paper reveals the facts that necessitated telecommuting in the 'new normal' virtual work environment. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of executive-level employees working in the banking sector. Data were analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The findings reveal that the success of telecommuting during the COVID-19 pandemic depends on the nature of family responsibility, virtual work environment, virtual training, and self-management of the employees affected, while the work-life balance (WLB) is not significant.  The decision-makers need to implement psychological training, skills-based training for managers, employees, and family members, and provide incentives to handle difficulties encountered in the pandemic situation. The present study proposes formulating a long-term policy that can successfully align with the new normal working conditions.  This should encompass fundamental working rights under the virtual working environment, career development, and welfare of workers.  To date, previous studies are based on the advantages of traditional telecommuting. However, this study considers employees’ perception of telecommuting in the COVID-19 pandemic; thus, the study fills the empirical gap in the research on telecommuting in the new normal working condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishing a Nexus between On-Street Commercial Activities, Associated Environmental Risks Hazard Risks and Planning Policy: An Exploratory Analytical Approach

B. O. Bankole, S. J. Arohunsoro, O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu

Archives of Current Research International, Page 49-59
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i430243

The paper established a nexus between on-street commercial activities, associated environmental and hazard risks and environmental planning policy in Ado Ekiti. In order to achieve the objectives, a series of survey was carried out. This included site visitation, field observation, and collection of relevant data through questionnaire. A total number of 800 lock up shops were identified in various locations in the study area meant for various commercial purpose and a further 1200 slots were added for hawkers, market induced service operators, road side traders, members of Drivers’ Unions, passengers, pedestrians etc, bringing the total number to 2000 out of which 10% was sampled totaling 200 respondents in all. The two hundred respondents were randomly stratified from the Atikankan, old garage, Mathew, Irona, Ojumose, Oke-Iyinmi and Idolofin area. Out of the 200 questionnaires, only 199 were filled and returned. The study revealed that on-street commercial activities were responsible for several environmental problems and other hazards in the study area, thereby frustrating environmental planning policy. It is recommended that a more efficient rerouting of traffic along major high ways and around market locations must e adopted. Markets like Oba’s Market, Bisi Market, Erekesan Market should be developed to meet the global standard. Enough parking spaces should also be provided around these Markets to ease the commercial activities in the study area among others.