Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Blood Glucose and Blood Pressure Distribution among Students of a Tertiary Institution in Port-Harcourt

S. O. Ojeka, T. G. Ibulubo, F. Saronee

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i730254

Introduction: Globally, reports on diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases have shown to pose a major pitfall of health challenge, resulting in mortality especially among middle and low-income groups in developing countries.

Aim: This research was therefore undertaken to determine the variation in blood glucose and blood pressure distribution among individual students of a tertiary institution in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: This is a randomized cross sectional observational study. 220 apparently healthy students (54 male and 166 female) of Rivers State College of Health Sciences and Management Technology (RIVSCOHSMAT), Port Harcourt were recruited into the study, Fasting blood glucose and blood pressure were determined using glucometer and sphygmomanometer respectively.         

Results: The results show the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension as 8.2% and 10.5% respectively. The results revealed that 2.3% of the population was pre-diabetic with a higher prevalence in men (5.6%) compared to females (1.2%). Male subjects had significantly higher fasting blood sugar, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to the females (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The study revealed gender differences in blood glucose homeostasis between women and men. More awareness is needed to encourage a healthier lifestyle to reduce the burden of diabetes and hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Effect of COVID-19 on the Health of Charcoal Producers in the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Nigeria

P.O. Eniola

Archives of Current Research International, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i730255

Charcoal producers ignored the health implications of the activity especially during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in several health disorders. Thus, the study examined perceived effect of COVID-19 on the health of charcoal producers in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured interview scheduled. A total of 178 respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were analysed through the use of frequency, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics: chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study reveals that most of the respondents strongly agreed that they usually use local herbs to treat all ailments during COVID-19. More than 50% of them always experienced difficult breathing during COVID-19, and that high death were recorded than before COVID-19 pandemic, while 88.2% of the respondents perceived low level of the effect of COVID-19 on their health. In addition, more than 50% of them strongly agreed that COVID-19 does not exist at all, that it is a taboo, while shaking hands with customers/friends is a symbol of love and that they cannot do without touching both face and nose during COVID-19 pandemic respectively. However, 93.3% of the respondents did not comply with the COVID-19 preventive measures. The study concludes that charcoal producers did not believe in the existence of COVID-19 and this may be dangerous to their health. Hence, education awareness on the hazard of COVID-19 to the health of charcoal producers should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neurobehavioural Changes and not Structural Changes Occur in Rat Fed with Cassava Products (Fufu, Garri and Tapioca Diet)

Lekpa K. David, Eric Umeakaelu, Chinagorum Ibeachu

Archives of Current Research International, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i730256

The ability of cassava products (fufu, garri and tapioca) to produce behavioral and structural changes in the brain of adult rats was examined. Forty adult male rats (N=40) were used for this study and the experiment was divided into two phases (N=20 each).Rat were trained in a Reach-To-Grasp Task for 6 weeks and Quantitative assessments using a reaching movement scale and reach-to-grasp success rate were carried out to determine baseline values. After which administration of the various cassava products was done. The 1st phase had the rats trained to perform the reach to grasp experiment before been fed with various cassava diet. In this phase the animals performed significantly worse than the controls when determining the average success rate in a reach-to-grasp experiment (baseline=72.6%, fufu diet= 30%, garri diet =47%, tapioca diet =59%). The 2nd phase had the rats trained simultaneously as they were being fed withvarious cassava diet. In this phase the animals also performed significantly worse than the controls when determining the average success rate in a reach-to-grasp experiment (fufu diet= 37.5%, garri diet =46.5%, tapioca diet =56.5%). The various movement of the rat was assessed using Tracker software (Video Analysis and Modeling tool, version 5.1.2) and the movement pattens were determined. The animals fed with Fufu shows the worst movement pattern indicating aiming impairment which may be as a result of structural changes in the m1 region of the cerebral cortex. The data obtained were analysed using ANOVA and there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the movement pattern. Histological observation showed no neuropathological changes in the motor cortex. The rats fed with cassava diets shows no observable changes in the structures and sizes of the neurons as compared with the control.  Cassava products (Fufu, Garri and Tapioca) have been demonstrated to cause neurobehavioural and mild structural changes in the M1 region of the cerebral cortex.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Approach of the Antibiotics Susceptibility of some Bacterial Strains Concurrently Isolated from Raw Milk and Cattle Feed (Water and Fodder) from some Farms in the West Region of Cameroon (Central Africa)

P. Ngo Bahebeck, C. S. Metsopkeng, J. S. Eheth, A. Tamsa Arfao, A. Manouore Njoya, Y. Poutoum Yogne, S. Lacmata Tamekou, H. Bayemi Pougue, O. V. Noah Ewoti, L. M. Moungang, P. A. Nana, E. Masseret, T. Sime-Ngando, M. Nola

Archives of Current Research International, Page 27-39
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2021/v21i730257

Introduction: Foodborne resistant bacteria have become a challenge to food security. Milk and milk products are easy vectors of transmission of foodborne pathogens, these being the main sources of human infection by antimicrobial resistant pathogens. The present study aimed at making a comparative approach of the antibiotic sensitivity/resistance of 3 bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp.) isolated from milk, drinking water and green fodder consumed by cows in the West Cameroon region (Central Africa).

Methodology: A total of 48 raw milk samples, 48 water samples and 48 green fodder samples were collected during the year 2020 and subjected to culture and identification of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the antibiotic disc diffusion method.

Results: Escherichia coli isolates showed high resistance (56-100%) to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone in all three samples. Salmonella spp. isolates showed resistance to ampicillin only (62, 67 and 67%). Brucella spp. strains isolated from raw milk and drinking water showed high sensitivity (78-100%) to azithromycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline. Antibiotic sensitivity/resistance to Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. strains largely did not differ between samples (P>0.05). No difference in sensitivity/resistance (P>0.05) of Brucella spp. strains isolated from milk and water was observed with respect to the 10 antibiotics tested.

Conclusions: The emergence of resistance to various antibiotics commonly used in medical and veterinary practices has important implications for public health. It seems necessary to strengthen of the regulations covering the sale and prescription of antibiotics.