Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges to Research Activities among Academic Clinicians at the International Medical School, Management and Science University, Malaysia

Sohayla M. Attalla, Nihal A. Hanafy, Mahfuza Akter, Kavitha Ashok Kumar

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i330276

Scientific research is the main factor for developing the societies. The qualified university staff are expected to have the biggest share in research work but unfortunately may be distracted by academic work or suffering variable factors that hinder the research activities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of those interested in research and have research activities among staff at the IMS-MSU and investigate the factors that may hinder the research activities among the medical school academicians in order to put recommendations to enhance the research activities. Results showed that 90% of the working staff are interested in research, 35.2% had 1-5 publications and 12.9% had  30 publications along their working life.  51.6% of the respondents are holding master and 38.7% are holding PhD that gives indication for the qualifications of the school staff that are suitable to perform research but unfortunately those having more than > 15 researches along their work life represented 22.5% which is a small percentage but it can be accepted when it is noticed that 28% only of the working power are working since more than 10 years. 48.4%% of the working power are having 1-5 publications in the last year which mean that the research activities have been increasing in the last year when it is noticed that 35.2% of the staff are having 1-5 publications along their working life. The most challenging factor for research activities from the academicians’ perspective was the multifactorial effects (35.4%), research related factors (32.3%) followed by the organizational (19.4%) and the personal factors (12.9%).  It is concluded that the research ecosystem has been developing and growing fast in the last 5 years among IMS-MSU staff, yet all the affecting challenges are encouraged to be corrected for more enhancement of research activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Ratio of Brain Tissue Homogenates in Response to Cocos nucifera Treatment

O. N. Ilochi, C. E. Augustine, A. N. Chuemere

Archives of Current Research International, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i330277

Objective: This study revealed the effect of Cocos nucifera juice on antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio in brain tissue homogenates of wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: 40 male wistar rats were collected and randomly selected into 4 groups. Treatment protocols were; i-normal saline, ii-3ml C. nucifera juice, iii-6ml C.nucifera juice, iv-9ml C. nucifera juice. The study period lasted for 42 days. Brain tissue homogenate was prepared and biochemical analysis for antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); pro-oxidant biomarkers hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) were assayed for.

Results: The result showed that there was an increase in antioxidants concentration and a simultaneous decrease in pro-oxidant species generation as the dose of treatment was increased. The ratio of antioxidants to pro-oxidants showed a direct proportionality to the treatment dose.

Conclusion: C. nucifera juice has the ability to improve the level of production or synthesis of the assayed antioxidant enzymes and also has the efficacy to suppress pro-oxidant specie generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Relationship Perception is Not Affected by Short-term Cortical Reorganization

Carlo Aleci, Claudio Rosa, Alessia Mazzon

Archives of Current Research International, Page 14-24
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i330278

Aims: Long-term cortical reorganization after cortical damage can induce abnormal spatial relationship perception (spatial anisotropy) but there is also evidence of short-term, reversible cortical re-modulation even in the absence of cerebral damage: simulated hemianopic deprivation, in fact, is found to affect the positional judgment. This study investigates if the same occurs for spatial relationship perception.

Study Design: Case series.

Place and duration of Study: Service of Neuro-Ophthalmology, University of Turin, Italy, from January 2020 to July 2020.

Methodology: Spatial relationship perception (SRP) of three subjects was measured in the presence of simulated homonymous hemianopia with a psychophysical procedure that estimates the discrimination threshold between elliptical and circular stimuli centered to the fixation point. The extent of the deprivation was graded as the distance of the proximal border of the nonresponsive area from the fixation point.

Results: Overall, spatial relationship perception is not affected by the hemifield deprivation in terms of distance of the scotoma from the fixation point (P= 0.26), laterality (P= 0.07), and distance X laterality (P= 0.15). However, a significant effect of distance and laterality (P= 0.01 and P= 0.02, respectively) was found in the sole observer who showed an anisotropic perception in normal (no-simulated) condition.

Conclusion: SRP appears to be robust toward the reversible spatial remapping induced by simulated hemianopia along the deprived area. However, the response of the visual system to artificial visual deprivation seems conditioned by pre-existing anisotropy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Assessment and the Impacts of Cultism Crisis in the Selected Communities in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

Okwori Peter Benson, A. Obafemi Andrew, Asomaku Sunny Oghenefegor, Wali Elekwachi

Archives of Current Research International, Page 25-40
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i330279

Cultism irrespective of several actions at lessening it, emanated from Nigeria's communities. Cultism has projected despair over the peaceful and communal co-existence within our communities. It therefore became overbearing to thoroughly review the issue of cultism in our Communities where great moral values childhood should control over feeling. Without a doubt, the issue has expected sickening extent as cultic violence flourishes considerably more. The fundamental reason for this study is to evaluate the risk and the effect of cultism emergency in the selected Communities in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State Nigeria. The aim of this study is to assess the risk and the impact of cultism crisis in the selected Communities in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State Nigeria. Both primary and secondary data sources were employed in this study. A descriptive statistics such as simple bar chart in percentages was used through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.2 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software to analyse the information generated. The instrument utilized were structured and closed ended questionnaire. Conclusively, we can say that there must be an improved facilities and improved living conditions in these selected communities so as to minimize perceived strain in the social system which underlines cultism crisis in the study area. The administrative authorities of these selected communities must show doggedness in their determination to stamp out cultism. They must brace up to the challenges of cultism, which has become one of the most potent evils of the recent time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vitamin E on Chronic Haematoxicity of Paraquat Exposed Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

Okolonkwo Benjamin Nnamdi, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Adjekuko Ohwonigho Collins, Zebedee Loveday Udu

Archives of Current Research International, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i330280

Paraquat is an environmental pollutant that is associated with some disorders including alteration of some harmatological indices and is a concern to public health. Vitamin E has antioxidant property and other characteristic roles that ameliorate toxic effect. 200 male albino rats weighing 0.2±0.02kg on the average were divided into four main groups (A, B, C, and D) with 50 rats in one group. The “A” group was not served paraquat solution and was used as the control group. Group “B”, “C”, “D” being the treatment group were given dose rates of paraquat of 0.02g, 0.04g, and 0.06g, of paraquat per kg rat respectively every two weeks for three months. The main groups further had subgroups. “A”, “A0” and “AVE”; “B”, “B0” and “BVE”; “C” had “C0” and “CVE”; and “D”, “D0” and “DVE” subgroups. Vitamin E was not given to subgroups “A0”, “B0”, “C0” and “D0” subgroups while “AVE”, “BVE”, “CVE” and “DVE” were fed orally with 500mg of vitamin E therapy every week. Treatment with vitamin E began three months after paraquat treatment. At the end of the weekly treatment with vitamin E for a month, the rats were sacrificed and their blood samples were obtained and analyzed for PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte. A0, B0, C0 and D0 intergroup comparison was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 in PCV and Hb levels while their WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte had no statistical significance. Ave, Be, Cve and Dve intergroup comparison was statistically significant, p-value<0.05 in PCV and Hb levels while WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophils had no statistical significance among the groups. Intra group comparison showed that only PCV and Hb were significant between groups, p-value<0.05. This study confirms that vitamin E is potent in treating paraquat toxicity in male albino rats on one month of weekly treatment.