Open Access Case study

Management of Bosworth Fracture: Case Report

K. M. Onuoha, U. I. Obong, O. M. Oyewumi, I. J. Owolabi

Archives of Current Research International, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430284

Introduction: Bosworth fracture is an uncommon fracture that involves the distal fibula associated with a dislocation of the proximal fibula fragment being posterior to the tubercle of the tibia distally. As the proximal fibula fragment becomes entrapped behind the Tibia it subsequently makes it irreducible which then necessitates the correction of this fracture surgically. Making an initial diagnosis of this fracture is quite difficult as it is rare and few data in our setting have been recorded with only a handful of documented cases worldwide. Although attempts have been made to reduce this fracture with closed reduction, the outcomes are generally unfavourable and counterproductive. Bosworth fracture is well documented in medical literature but often not easily picked at presentation.

Case Presentation: This case report evaluates a 19 year old female student who presented with a 2 hours history of pain and deformity to her right ankle after she had accidentally externally rotated her ankle with the foot in a prone position while running down the stairs. Examination revealed a deformed and swollen right ankle joint, overlying skin was intact, tender limitation of joint movement. She had a failed closed reduction and was subsequently counselled for open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Soil Properties by Adding Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): An Experimental Analysis

Christopher Ehizemhen Igibah, Olugbenga Oludolapo Amu, Lucia Omolayo Agashua, Ernest Tochukwu Ugochukwu

Archives of Current Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430281

The stabilization capability of rice husk ash (RHA) and Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was scrutinized using laboratory scrutiny. Three soils (Soil A, B, and C) were improved with various percentages (via weight of dry soil) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% for all stabilizing agents and compacted via BSL (British Standard light) energy. Their impacts were assessed on the strength physiognomies such as UCS (unconfined compressive strength), OMC (optimum moisture content), California bearing ratio (CBR), and MDD (maximum dry density tests based on ASTM (American Standard Testing Materials) codes. The result reveals the optimum values for three lateritic samples, A, B, and C, illustrated a reduction in plasticity for rice husk ash (RSA) stabilizer from 17.32%, 12.67%, and 19.07% (at 6% cement) to 16.32%, 9.90% and 17.00% (at 6% cement and 6% RHA) respectively. Likewise, the optimum Triaxial test result for RHA at 6% with a specified cement content of 6% are A (Deviation stress 595.45KN/m2, Cohesion 10KN/m2, Angle of internal friction 280, and Shear stress 175.5KN/m2), B (Deviation stress 514.75KN/m2, Cohesion 9KN/m2, Angle of internal friction 280 and Shear stress 168.5KN/m2), and C (Deviation stress   530.58KN/m2, Cohesion 10KN/m2, Angle of internal friction 290 and Shear stress  162.0KN/m2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Background Gamma Radiation Level in Selected Dump Site of Niger Delta, Nigeria

C. D. Anyalebechi, O. L. Gbarato, C. P. Ononugbo

Archives of Current Research International, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430282

Our environment has been exposed to ionizing radiation from indiscriminate dumping of refuse which is seen as unending and unpreventable challenge on earth. Radiation level and exposure risks in some selected dump site in Rivers state have been calculated using radiation exposure rate meter (Radalert-100). Rate of exposure measured at Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (IAUE) and its environment ranged from 0.005±0.0001 to 0.016±0.003 mRh-1 with mean value of 0.015±0.002 mRh-1 and that measured at Igwuruta ranged from 0.009±0.001 to 0.048±0.003 mRh-1 its mean value is 0.015±0.002 mRh-1.  For All, the exposure rate measured  ranged from 0.009±0.0001 to 0.015±0.002 mRh-1 its mean value is 0.012±0.004 mRh-1. The exposure rates measured in the three dump site are relatively equal and slightly higher than the recommended permissible limit of 0.013 mRh-1. Estimation of the mean absorbed doses from the exposure rates for Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Igwuruta and Aluu are 127.72±31.26, 125.91±18.35 and 175.64±41.61 nGyh-1 respectively, its mean absorbed doses are 1.16, 1.18 and 1.11 mSvy-1 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent calculated is 0.20±0.03, 0.19±0.03 and 0.19±0.03 mSvy-1. The excess lifetime cancer risk estimated ranged from 0.68±0.11, 0.68±0.10 and 0.68±0.10 respectively, they are all above the recommended values 0.29x10ˉ3 in all the sampling locations. Following the result from the radiation level of the dump site, no immediate radiation risk is expected, but there could be a long term effects on those living around the dump side.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of ANSYS Model of Experimental Test Rig Simulating the Flow Inversion in RRs

Sayed Elnaggar

Archives of Current Research International, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430283

The experimental setup was built to simulate the flow inversion in natural circulation loops in research reactors (RRs). In an effort to recognize the buildup of natural circulation in RRs, pool type upward flow after the pump coasts down due to power loss, by Abdel-Latif et al. [1], was investigated. The setup consists of two vertically stacked pipes that simulate the two branches, one of which contains a test section that is composed of electrically heated, corresponding channels that simulate the core. The second one, represents the portion of the coming back pipe that is involved in the growing of core natural circulation. Several experimental tests under various conditions as the branch’s initial temperature are performed. The channel’s coolant and surface temperatures were monitored. In this study, the thermal-hydraulic (TH) behaviour of the setup is complemented by theoretical analysis using the ANSYS Fluent 17.2 code. The ANSYS Fluent model is validated against the measured values. Typically, the setup is nodlized and a code input is being prepared. The results show that ANSYS Fluent 17.2 qualitatively predicts the thermal hydraulic behaviour and associated flow inversion phenomenon of such facilities. There is a difference between the predicted and measured values, especially for the channel’s surface temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Seasonal Impact of Air Pollution on Health and Properties in Port Harcourt

Susan I. Ajiere, Bridget E. Diagi, David Edokpa, Okorondu J. Nnaemeka, Ekweogu C. Victoria

Archives of Current Research International, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430285

Air pollution is an environmental menace that has attracted a lot of concern both locally and globally. The Environment is very important to sustainability of life and air pollution has become of great concern to many countries across the world especially its impact on human health and ecosystem. This study thus, assessed perceived seasonal impact of air pollution on health and property of the inhabitants of Port Harcourt. Primary data in form of questionnaire was used to solicit information from the inhabitants of the study area. A cross-sectional research design was adopted using an online survey and a 24-question survey was designed on goggle documents website ( The link was active for three months and was strictly monitored, the link was disabled after receiving 400 responses. Data for the study were analyzed using cross-tabulation and bivariate percentage analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents were females (53.2%). However, 73.3% of the respondents have lived in Port Harcourt more than 11 years. This is an indication that they have high knowledge of the environment. Majority of the respondents (79.4%) have observed a change in air quality which was rated low and (80.1%) have attributed the source of the air pollution to illegal refining of crude oil within the city. Fifty percent of respondents identified two Climate seasons: raining and dry and (51.2%) observe the impact of air pollution to be more prominent during the dry season. Majority perceived that the associated health risk is very high (56.5%) and attributed health related issues such as difficulty in breathing, asthma, eye problem, heart problem, increase in cancer and headache to poor air quality in the city. It was also noted that the incidence of sooth affected their properties. Hence, there is an urgent need for government at all levels to put in place adequate enforcement institution that will work with community leaders (youth, women and other), health officials and academic researchers to implement the environmental policies and sanction offenders for the overall benefit of the wellbeing of the inhabitant towards achieving a sustainable environment in the state.