Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in a Vegetable Cultivated on Land Polluted through Illegal Mining
Archives of Current Research International, Volume 23, Issue 3,
The risk of exposure to the population from heavy metals in an area that have witnessed a surge in illegal mining activities, cattle rustling and banditry were evaluated in the current study. Lettuce leaves sample from Gadirge village, Jibia local Government area, Katsina State, Nigeria was evaluated for the presence of heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The health risks of the evaluated heavy metals in the sample to the population were assessed using the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Health Risk Index (HRI)) to assess the possible non-carcinogenic effect and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for the cancer risks. The result of the mean concentration values of the evaluated heavy metals Fe and Pb from the sample falls above the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) of heavy metals in leafy vegetables. The concentrations of the other metals including Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cd evaluated in the sample were within the permissible values. The result of the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) associated with the evaluated heavy metals exposure through consumption of the sample for adults and children were all lower than 1, with exception of the THQ for the heavy metals Fe and Mn in the adults and children population that was above 1. The combined health risks for all the metals in the sample for the adults and children population represented as the HRI were higher than 1, the result of the Incremental Life Cancer Risk (ILCR) for both the adult and children population has revealed that the heavy metal Ni was beyond the threshold of the safety limit for cancer risk. There is a health risk concern from consumption of the sample as the vegetable may contribute to the disease burden of the population.
- heavy metals
- cattle rustling
How to Cite
Wojciech Z, Małgorzata T, Sebastian S. Heavy metals in playgrounds in Lublin (E Poland): sources, pollution levels and health risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;28:18328–18341.
Jia Z, Li S, Wang L. Assessment of soil heavy metals for eco-environment and human health in a rapidly urbanization area of the upper Yangtze Basin. Sci. Rep. 2018;8(1):3256.
Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: Environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. J.Chem. 2019;6730305.
Rayhan Khan MA, Hosna Ara M. A Review on Heavy Metals in Vegetables Available in Bangladesh. J Hum Environ Health Promot. 2021;7(3):108-19.
Chowdhury S, Mazumder MAJ, Al-Attas O, Husain T. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries. Sci. Total Environ. 2016;569:476–488.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Matazu KI, Usman A, Idi A, et al. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils from Katsina state, Nigeria. Sustainability, Agri. Food and Environmental Research. 2020; 8(2):101-117.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Uba AI, Nasir A, Suleiman ZA, Yaradua AI, et al. Health Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Water and Sediment Samples from Kwanar are Dam, Katsina State, North-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Ground Sediment & Water. 2021;(12):746-767.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Bungudu JI, Shuaibu L, Usman A, Nasir A, et al.,. Health Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils from Katsina State, North-Western Nigeria.
WANEP. Addressing Armed Banditry in the North-West Region of Nigeria: Exploring the Potentials of a Multi-Dimensional Conflict Management Approach, Policy brief. West Africa Network for Peace Building Trinity Avenue, Off Mile 7 Road, Achimota, Accra P. O. Box CT4434, Cantonment, Accra-Ghana; 2019.
Manwani S, Vanisree CR, Jiman V, Awasthi KK, Yadav CS, Sankhla MS, et al., Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables and Their Toxic Effects on Human Health. Sustainable Crop Production-Recent Advances. Intech. Open Publishers; 2020.
Seema M, Vanisree CR, Vibha J, Kumud KA, Chandra SY, Mahipal SS, et al. Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables and Their Toxic Effects on Human Health. Sustainable Crop Production - Recent Advances. Intech Open. 2022:1-17.
Ebabhi AM, Kanife UC, Salako ST. Bio–assessment of heavy metals in leafy vegetables from selected agricultural farms in Lagos State, Nigeria. Nig. J. Pure & Appl. Sci. 2020;33(1):3650-3658.
Sagagi BS, Bello AM, Danyaya HA. Assessment of accumulation of heavy metals in soil, irrigation water, and vegetative parts of lettuce and cabbage grown along Wawan Rafi, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Environ Monit Assess. 2022; 194:699.
Awofolu OR. A survey of trace metals in vegetation, soil and lower animals along some selected major roads in metropolitan city, Lagos. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2005;105:431-449.
Audu AA, Lawal AO. Variation in metal contents of plants in vegetable Garden sites in Kano metropolis. Appl. Sci. Environmental Mgt. 2006;10(2):105-109.
Jan FA, Ishaq M, Khan S, Ihsanullah I, Ahmad I, Shakirullah M. A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;179:612–621.
Balkhaira, KS, Ashraf, MA. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2015;23(1):S32-S44.
Orisakwe OE, Mbagwu HOC, Ajaezi GC, Edet UW, Patrick U, Uwana PU. Heavy metals in sea food and farm produce from Uyo, Nigeria Levels and health implications. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015;15(2):e275–e282.
Ekhator OC, Udowelle NA, Igbiri S, Asomugha RN, Igweze ZN, Orisakwe OE. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017;4: 1-8.
Article ID 8458057.
Micheal B, Patrick O, Vivian T. Cancer and non-cancer risks associated with heavy metal exposures from street foods: Evaluation of roasted meats in an urban setting. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2015;3:24–30.
Li S, Zhang Q. Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010;181:1051–1058.
Li PH, Kong SF, Geng CM, Han B, Sun RF, Zhao RJ, et al., Assessing the hazardous risks of vehicle inspection workers’ exposure to particulate heavy metals in their work places. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2013;13:255–265.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Human Health Related Guidance, OSWER. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2002;9355(4–24).
NFPCSP Nutrition Fact Sheet. Joint report of Food Planning and Nutrition Unit (FMPU) of the ministry of Food of Government of Bangladesh and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation (FAO) September 14th 2011, 1–2, National Food Policy Plan of Action and Country Investment Plan, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
RAIS. The Risk Information System; 2007.
Guerra F, Trevizam AR, Muraoka T, Marcante NC, Canniatti-Brazaca SG. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health. Scientia Agricola. 2012;69:54–60.
Liu X, Song Q, Tang Y, Li W, Xu J, Wu J, et al., Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment. 2013;463–464:530–540.
Kamunda C, Mathuthu M, Madhuku M. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils from Witwatersrand gold mining basin, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2016;13:663.
Available: https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ijerph13070663 PMID: 27376316.
Yang J, Ma S, Zhou J, Song Y, Li F. Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables and health risk assessment of inhabitants in Daye China; J. Int. Med. Res. 2018;46:3374–3387.
Available: https:// doi.org/10. 177/0300060518758585
Javed M, Usmani N. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal. Springer plus. 2016;5:776.
Pepper IL, Gerba CP, Brusseau ML. Environmental and pollution Science: Pollution Science Series. Academic Press. 2012;212–232.
FAO/WHO. Codex Alimentarius Commission Food additives and contaminants: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program. 2011; ALINORM 01/12A:1-289
Yaradua AI, Alhassan, Nasir A, Matazu KI, Usman A, Idi A, et al., Concentrations and Risk Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals in Amaranthus (L.) Leaf Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International. 2019;20(4):1-12.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Matazu KI, Usman A, Idi A, et al., Heavy Metals Health Risk Assessment through Consumption of Baobab Leaf Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;13(1): 1-11.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Matazu KI, Usman A, Yau S, et al., Health Risk Assessment for Carcinogenic and Non Carcinogenic Heavy Metal Exposure from Hibiscus Leaf Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research. 2019;3(4):1-12.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Bala M, Usman A, Idi A, et al., Heavy Metal Burden and Evaluation of Human Health Risks in Tomato Fruits Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;9(1):1-10.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Matazu SS, Usman A, Idi A, et al., Health Risk Assessment for Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Heavy Metal Exposures from Pepper Fruits Cultivated In Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2019;6(4):1-10.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Nasir I, Matazu SS, Usman A, Idi A, et al. Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Onion Bulbs Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International. 2020; 20(2):30-39.
Yaradua AI, Bungudu JI, Shuaibu L, Alhassan AJ, Nasir A, Bello U, et al., Heavy Metals and Health Risk Burden, How Safe is the Consumer Population?: A Study on the Heavy Metal Content of Soybeans Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2022; 11(4):1-14.
Zhou H, Yang WT, Zhou X, Liu L, Gu JF, Wang WL, et al., Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetable species planted in contaminated soils and the health risk assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2016;13(3):289.
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Imam AA, Nasir A, Usman F, Shuaibu L, et al. Comparative Evaluation of the Heavy Metals Content of Sorghum Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria . Acta Scientific Nutritional Health. 3.11(2019a): 188-196
Yaradua AI, Alhassan AJ, Matazu HK, Nasir A, Matazu KI, Idi, A, et al., Evaluation of Heavy Metals in some Locally Produced Food Seasonings in Katsina state Nigeria. Sustainability, Agri, Food and Environmental Research. 2019e;7(4):212-226.
Yaradua AI, Shuaibu L, Bungudu JI, Nasir A, Usman A, Abdullahi A, et al., Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Health Risk Evaluation from Fish Contaminated with Heavy Metals. Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research. 2022; 18(6):32-41.
Abstract View: 21 times
PDF Download: 15 times